Research Methods 9th Edition author Gay chapter 1-6

Question Answer
Educational Research the formal systematic application of the scientific method of the study of educational problems.
Inductive Reasoning involes the developing generalizations based on OBSERVATION of a limited number of related events or experiences.
Deductive Reasoning involves the reverse process of inductive reasoning, in that you arrive at specific conclusions based on general principles, observations, or experiences.
Scientific Method orderly process entailing a number of steps: 1. recognition and definition of a problem, 2. formulation of a hypothesis, 3. collection of data, 4. analysis of data, and 5. statement of conclusions regarding confirmation or disconfirmation of the hypothesi
Hypothesis explantion for the occurence of certain behaviors, phenomenon or events as a way of predicting the results of research study and then collects data to test that prediction.
Basic Research conducted solely for the purpose of developing or refining a theory.
Applied Research conducted for the purpose of applying or testing a theory to determine its usefullness in solving practical problems.
Evaluation Research the systematic process of collecting and analyzing data about the quality, effectiveness, merit, or value of programs, products, or practices.
Formative Research evaluation whose function is to form and improve a program or product under development so that weaknesses can be remedied during implementation.
Ethonography Study of the cultural patterns and perspectives of participants in their natural settings. Focuses on particular site or sites that provide the researcher with context in which to study both the setting and the participants who inhabit it.
Summative Evaluation evaluation whose function is to summarize the overall quality or worth of a program or product at its completion.
Research and Development extensive process of researching consumer needs and then developing products specifically designed to fulfill those needs. Focus on creating effective products for use in school.
Action Research systematic inquiry conducted by stakholders in the teaching/learning environment to gather information about the ways in which their particular shcools operate, the teachers teach and the students learn.
Quantitative Research the collection of numerical data to explain, predict, and/or control phenomena of interest.
Descriptive Research research that determines and describes the way things are: involves collecting numerical data to test hypthesis or answer questions about the current subject of study (survey research).
Correlational Research collecting data to determine whether, to to what degree, a relation exists between 2 or more quantifiable variable.
Variable A concept (eg. intelligence, height, aptitude) that can assume anyone of a range of values.
Correlation a quantiative measure of the degree of correspondence between 2 or more variables.
Correlation Coefficient decimal number between -1.00 and +1.00 that indicates the degree to which 2 variables are related.
Causal-comparative Research Research that attempts to determine the cause, or research for existing differences in the behavior or status of groups of individuals (ex posto facto research).
Independent Variable a behavior or characteristic under the control of the researcher and believed to influence some other behavior or characteristic (experimental variable, manipulated variable, cause or treatment.
Dependent Variable change or difference in a behavior characteristic that occurs as a result of the independent or grouping variable, effect, outcome, or posttest).
Experiemental Research research in which at least one independent variable is manipulated, other relevant variables are controlled, and the effect on one or more dependent variables is observed.
Generalizability the applicability of research findings to settings and contexts different from the one in which they were obtained.
Singe-subject experimental designs designs applied when the sample size is one; used to study the behavior change that an individual exhibits as a result of some intervention or treatment (aka. single case experimental designs).
Sample a number of individuals, items, or events selected from a population for a study preferably in such a way that they represent the larger group from which they were selected.
Narrative Research the study of how different humans experience the world around them; involves a methodology that allows people to tell the stories of their "storied" lives.
Theory an organized body of concepts, generalizations, and principles that can be investigated.
Replication a repetition of a study using different subjects to retest its hypothesis.
Characteristics of Good Topics 1. An interesting topic that will keep the researcher motivated. 2. A topic that can be investigated through collecting and analyzing data. 3. One that has theoretical or practical signficance. 4. One that has ethical research. 5. One that is manageable f
Definition and Purpose of a Hypotheses in Quantitative Studies 1. Should be based on sound rationale, and be derived from previous research or theory and its confirmation or disconfirmation should contribute to educational theory or practice. 2. Provides reasonable explanation for predicted outcome. 3.States clearly
Inductive Hypothesis Is a generalization based on specific observations. (72)
Non-directional Hypothesis states simply that a relation or difference between variables exists. (72)
Directional Hypothesis states the expected direction of the relation ofr the difference. (73)
Null Hypothesis states that there is no significant relation or difference between variables. (73)
Guiding Hypothesis Rather than testing hypothesis, qualitative researchers are more likely to generate new hypothesis as a result of their studies. (75)
Review of Related Literature involves the systematic identification, location, and analysis of documents containing information related to the research problem.
What is the major purpose for reviewing previous literature? to determine what has already been done that relates to your topic.
Besides determining previous research, what are two other reasons to review previous literature. discover research strategies and specific data collection approaches that have or have not been productive and it helps to facilitate interpretation of your study results.
What are 3 guidelines that can assist you in narrowing down your literature review? 1. Avoid the temptation to include everything in your review. 2. Review only those works that are directly related to your specific problem. 3. review any study related in some meaningful way to your problem.
Quantative review of previous literature differs from Qualitative reviews, but some researchers believe the following: literature review demonstrates the underlying assumptions that are central to the proposal. 2. provides a way for the novice researcher to convince reviewers that he or she is knowledgeable about the related research. 3. provides researchers the opportuni
What are the 6 steps in conducting a literature review? 1. Identify and make a list of keywords to guide your search. 2. locate primary and secondary sources. 3. evaluate your sources for quality. 4. Abstract your sources. 5. Analyze and organize your sources using a literature matrix. 6. Write the literature
What is a primary source? contains firsthand information, such as an original document or a description of a study written by the person who conducted it.
What is a secondary Source? is secondhand information, such as a brief description of a study written by someone other than the person who conducted it.
What is ERIC? The Education Resources Information Center. It was established in 1966 by the National Library of Education. It is the largest digital library of education literature in the world.
What is an Education Index? It is an electronic index of articles published in educational periodicals since 1983. Provides bibliological information and abstracts of sources pertaining to topics in education.
What is PsycINFO? on online version of Psychological Abstracts, a former print source that presents summaries of completed psychological research studies.
What are Dissertation Abstracts? contains bibliographic citations and abstracts from all subject areas for doctoral dissertations and master's theses completed at more than 1,000 accredited colleges and universities worldwide.
What is the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature? an index similar in format to the Education Index, but it indexes articles in nearly 200 widely read magazines - nontechnical, opinion type references.
What is the Annual Review of Psychology? includes reviews of psychological research that are often relevant to educational research. It provides bibliographic information and abstracts for such specific areas as child development, education administration, exceptional child education, and langu
What is UnCover Periodical Index ( database with brief descriptive information about articlesfrom more than 17,000 multidisciplinary journals.
What is NewJour? ( a site that provides an up-to-date list of journals and newsletters available on the Internet on any subject.
What is Education Week? ( a periodical devoted to education reform, schools, and policy.
What is the Journal of Statistics Education? ( electronic journal that provides abstracts and full-test articles that have appeared since 1993.
What is CSTEEP: The Center for the Study of Testing, Evaluation, and Educational Policy? ( website for educational research organization that contains information on testing, evaluation, and public policy studies on school assessment practices and international comparative research.
What is National Center for Education Statistics? ( Site contains statistical reports and other information on the condition of U.S. education. Also reports on education activities internationally.
What is Developing Educational Standards? ( Site contains up-to-date information regarding educational standards and curriculum frameworks from all sources (national, state, local and other).
What is Internet Resources for Special Education? ( provides links to variety of topics, including teaching resources for regular and special education teachers.
What is U.S. Department of Education? ( contains links to the education database supported by the U.S. government including ERIC. Makes available full-text reports on current findings on education and provides links to research offices and organizationas and publications and products.
What are 5 questions to evaluation literature resources critically? 1. What was the problem statement of the study? 2. Who was studied? 3. Where was the source published? 4. When was the research conducted? 5. How was the study conducted? (90)
What is a refereed journal? a journal where articles are reviewed by a panel of experts in the field and are seen as more scholarly and trustworthy.
What are the steps to Abstracting? arrange your articles in reverse chronological order. 1. read any abstract or summary to determine relevance. 2. skim the entire article, making mental notes of the main points. 3. write a complete bibliographic reference for the work using the correct fo
What are the steps to Analyzing, Organizing, and Reporting the Literature? 1. Make an outline. 2. Analyze each reference in terms of your outline. 3. Analyze the references under each subheading for similarities and differences.
What is meta-analysis? statistical approach to summarizing the results of many quantitative studies that have investigated basically the same problem. It provides a numerical way of expressing the result of a group of studies. It is an alternative to the traditional approach.
What are two major problems associated with the traditional approach to summarizing studies. 1. that subjectivity is involved. Different authors use different criteria for selecting studies to be summarized. 2. the number of research studies available on a topic increases, so does the difficulty of the reviewing task.
How is "Effect Size" expressed? a decimal number between -1.00 and +1.00.
What is a research plan? a detailed description of a study proposed to investigate a given problem.
What 3 elements are common to both a quantitative and a qualitative research plan? 1. an introduction that includes the review of related literature. 2. a discussion of the research design and procedures. 3. information about data analysis.
What purposes does a research plan serve? 1. It forces you to think through every aspect of the study. 2. it facilitates evaluation of the study by you and others. 3. it provides detailed procedures to guide the study. (a well thought out plan provides structure, reduces the probability of costl
What are the 5 components of a quantitative research plan? 1. an introduction that includes the review of related literature. 2. a method section. 3. a description of proposed data analyses. 4. a time schedule. 5. sometimes a budget.
An introduction statement topic... sets the stage for the rest of the plan and should stated as early as possible.
The introduction statement... should be accompanied by a description of the background of the topic and a rationale for its significance.
The review of related literature... should provide an overview of the topic and present references related to what is known about the topic. It also should lead logically to a tested hypothesis and conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications.
The statement of hypothesis... should clearly and concisely state the expected relation or difference between the variables in the study, and either in the statement itself or leading up to it, should define those variables in operational, measurable, common-usage terms.
What should be included in the description of participants section? Identification of the NUMBER, SOURCE, and CHARACTERISTICS, of the sample. It should also define the population (the larger group that the sample was derived from).
The instrument section... describes the test or tool used for data collection and how they will measure the variables stated in the hypothesis.
The design in the methods section... is a general strategy or plan for conducting research. It describes the basic structure and goals of the study.
The procedure section... describes all the steps in collecting the data, from beginning to end, in the order in which they will occur. Typically begins with a destailed description of the technique to be used to select the study participants.
Assumption is an assertion presumed to be true but not actually verified.
Data Analysis must be included in the research plan, a description of the technique or techniques that will be used to analyze the data collected during the study.
Time Schedule important for beginning researchers working on a thesis or dissertation for experienced researchers working under the dealines of a research grant or contract.
The title of a study provides the researcher with a frame of reference for continuous reflection.
The introduction section... gives the purpose of the research study; a frame for the study as a larger theoretical, policy, practical problem; intial research questions; and related literature that helps to support the research question.
The introduction section includes.... 1. the purpose of the research, 2. framing the study, 3. review of related literature
The research procedures Section includes.... 1. the overall approach and rationale for the study, 2. site and sample selection, 3. the researcher's role, 4. data collection methods, 5. data management strategies, 6. data analysis strategies, 7. trustworthiness features, 8. ethical considerations, 9.
Target population the population that the researcher would ideally like to study.
Accessible population the population that the research can realistically select subjects.
Probability sampling techniques... permit the researcher to specify the probability or chance that each member of a defined population will be selected for the sample.
Simple random sampling... is the process of selecting a sample in such a way that all individuals in the defined population have an equal and independent chance of selection for the sample.
Random sampling... is the best way to obtain a representative sample, although no technique quarantees a representative sample. (required for many statistical analyses).
Steps in a random sampling 1. identify and define the population, 2. determine the desired sample size, 3. lista all members of the population, 4. assign all individuals a consecutive number from zero to the required number, 5. select an arbitrary number in the table of random numb
Stratified sampling is a way to quarantee desired representation of relevant subgroups within the sample.
Proportional stratified sampling... is the process of selecting a sample in such a way that identified subgroups in the population are represented in the sample in the same proportion in which they exist in the population.
Steps in equal-sized groups in stratified sampling 1. identify and define the population, 2. determine desired sample size, 3. identify the variable and subgroups for which you want to quarantee a specific representation, 4. classify all members of the population as members of one of the identified subgro
Cluster sampling intact groups, not individuals, are randomly selected.
Steps in cluster sampling 1. Identify and define the population, 2. determine the desired sample size, 3. identify and define a logical cluster, 4. list all clusters that make up the population of the cluster, 5. estimate the average number of the population, 6. determine the numb
Systematic sampling sampling in which every Kth individual is selected from a list.
Steps in systematic sampling 1. identify and define the population, 2. determine the desired sample size, 3. obtain a list of the population, 4. determine "K" by dividing the size of the population by the desired sample size, 5. start at some random place in the population list, clos
For Correlation Studies... at least 30 participants are needed to establish the existence or nonexistence of a relation.
The appropriate sample size depends on... the specific type of research involved, the size of the population, and whether data will be analyzed for given subgroups.
What are general rules for determing sample size? 1. the larger the population, the smaller the % of the population required to get a representative sample, 2. for smaller populations (100 or fewer) survey the whole population, 3. if population is around 500, sample 50%, 4. if population is around 1,500,
A random sample means... out of the researchers control and at the mercy of chance. (Chance variation is called sampling error.)
Sampling Bias... is systematic sampling error that is generally the fault of the researcher. Occurs when some aspect of the sampling creates a bias in the data.
Nonprobability Sampling (nonrandom sampling)... process of selecting a sample using a technique that does not permit the researcher to specify the probability or chance.
Convenience Sampling (accidental sampling or haphazard sampling) the process of including whoever happens to be available at the time (seeking volunteers and studying existing groups).
Purposive Sampling (judgment sampling) process of selecting a sample that is beleived to be representative of a given population, the researcher selects the sample using his experience or knowledge of the group to be sampled.
Quota Sampling process of selecting a sample based on required, exact numbers, or quotas of individuals of varying characteristics. Most often used on a wide-scale survey research when listing all members of the population of interest is not possible.
Qualitative Sampling process of selecting a small number of individuals for a study in such a way that the individuals chosen will be good key informants (collaborators, co-researchers) who will contribute to the researcher's understanding of a given phenomenon.
Characteristics of good key informants include... ability to be reflective and thoughtful, to communicate (orally and in writing) effectively with the researcher and to be comfortable with the researcher's presence at the research site.
Because many potential participants are unwilling to undergo lengthy demands of participation... sampling in qualitative research is almost always purposive.
What are the 2 general indicators commonly used to determine if the selected participants is sufficient for qualitative research? 1. the extent to which the selected participants represent the range of potential participants, and 2. when the researcher begins to hear the same thoughts, perspectives, and responses from most or all participants.
What are 5 types of Qualitative sampling? 1. Intensity sampling, 2. Homogenous sampling, 3. Criterion sampling, 4. Snowball sampling, 5. Random purposive sampling.
What is intensity sampling? Compare differences of 2 or more levels of the topic (good vs. bad).
What is Homogenous sampling? Select a small group of participants who fit a narrow topic, collect data from the chosen participants.
What is Criterion sampling? Identify particpants who meet the defined criterion; select a group of five or so participants to collect data from.
What is Snowball sampling? Decide how many participants are needed, let initial participants recruit additional participants that fit the researcher's requirements until the desired number is reached.
What is Random Purposive sampling? given a pool of participants, decide how many of them can reasonably be dealt with int he study, randomly select this number to participate.
What is Data Saturation? when the researcher begins to hear the same thoughts, perspectives, and responses.
Data pieces of information you collect and use to examine your topic, hypothesis, or observations.
Construct an abstraction that cannot be observed directly; it is a concept invented to explain behavior. (intelligence, personality, teacher effectiveness, creativity). When constructs are operationally defined they become variables.
Instrument a tool used to collect data.
Measurement Scale a system for organizing data so that it may be inspected, analyzed, and interpreted.
Nonminal variable (categorical variable) include sex, employment status, marital status, and type of school.
What are 4 types of comparison measurement scales? Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio
What is a Ordinal Variable? classifies persons or objects, and also ranks them highest to lowest.
What is a Interval Variable? has all the characteristics of ordinal variables but its values also represent equal intervals.
What is a Ratio Variable? has the properties of Ordinal and Interval variables and has a true zero point.
Test A formal, systematic, usually paper and pencil procedure for gatthering information.
What is a Cognitive Characteristic? mental characteristic related to intellect, such as achievement.
Affective Characteristic? Mental characteristic related to emotion such as attitude.
Standardized Test? one that is administered, scored, and interpreted in the same way no matter where or when it is used.
Assessment Broad term that encompasses the entire process of collecting, synthesizing, and interpreting information, whether formal or informal, numerical or textual.(148)
Measurement process of quantifying or scoring performance on an assessment instrument.
Performance Assessment (authentic or alternative assessment) type of assessment that emphasizes a student process (demonstration, debate, oral speech, or dramatic performance) or product (essay, science fair project, research report)
Raw Score the number or point value of items a person answered correctly on an assessment.
Norm-referenced scoring a students performance on a assessment is compared to the performance of others.
Criterion-referenced Scoring individuals performance on an assessment is compared to a predeteremined, external standard, rather than to the performance of others.
Self-referenced scoring approaches involve measuring how an individual student's performance on a single assessment changes over time.
Cognitive Test measures intellectual processes, such as thinking, memorizing, problem solving, analyzing, reasoning, applying information. Most tests that school pupils take are cognitive achievement tests.
Achievement Test measures an individuals current proficiency in given area of knowledge or skill
Diagnostic Test yeilds multiple scores to facilitate identification of a student's weak and strong areas within the subject area.
Aptitude Test commonly used to predict how well an individual is likely to perform in a future situation.
What are the 3 major ways to collect research data? 1. Administer a standardized instrument, 2. Administer a self-developed instrument, 3. Record naturally occurring already available data.
Aptitude tests usually yield 3 scores... 1. overall score, 2. verbal score, 3. quantitative score.
What are 5 types of scales used to measure attitudes? 1. Likert scales, 2. semantic differential scales, 3. rating scales, 4. Thurstone scales, 5. Guttman scales.
What is a Likert Scale? requires an individual to respond to a series of statements by indicating whether he or she strongly agrees, disagrees, is undecided, or strongly disagrees.
What is a semantic differential scale? requires indication on attitude about a topic by selecting a position on a continuum that ranges from one bipolar adjective to another.
What is a rating scale? may be used to measure a respondent's attitudes toward self, others, activities, institutions, or situations.
What is a Thurstone Scale? requires selection from a list of statements that represent different points of view on a topic.
What is a Guttman Scale? requires respondents to agree or disagree with a number of statements, it is then used to determine whether an attitude is unidimensional.
What is an interest inventory? indicate personal likes and dislikes, such as kinds of activities preferred.
Value Tests... measures the relative strength of values in 6 different areas: theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious.
Personality Inventories... includes questions or statements that describe behaviors characteristic of certain personality traits.
What is the problem with self-report instruments? The researcher can never be sure that individuals are expressing their true attitudes, interests, values, or personalities.
What is a response set? the tendancy of an individual to respond in a particular way to a variety of instruments.

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