Hemostasis and Blood Coagulation - Test 2

Question Answer
What is hemostasis? The stoppage of bleeding or hemorrhage.
What are the components of hemostasis? Blood Platelets, Endothelial Cells, Plasma Coagulation Factors
What are the steps involved in hemostasis? 1. Compression and Vasoconstriction 2. Formation of a platelet plug 3. Blood Coagulation 4. Clot retraction and thrombus dissolution
What is the purpose of vascular spasms? Reduces blood flow and blood loss
What are the stepsw involved in the formation of a platelet plug? 1. Adherence - binding of receptor platelets 2. Aggregation - Platelets stick to collagen fibers 3. Secretion - releases ADP, thromboxane, and collagen
What plays a role in clot formation as well as clot dissolution? Thrombin
What organ is primarily responsible for the formation of coagulation factors? Liver
Where do thrombocytes originate from? From megakaryocytes in the bone marrow
What vitamin is required for the activation of some coagulation factors? Vitamin K
How long does it take for the formation of a blood clot to begin in a severe trauma? 15-20 seconds
How long does it take for the formation of a blood clot to begin in a minor trauma? 1-2 minutes
What is the clot initiated by? Bllod proteins, and activator substanes from platelets and the vascualr wall
How long does it take for the clot to be formed? 3-6 minutes
What time does clot retraction occur? 20 min - 1 hour
What forms connective tisue within the clot? Fibroblasts
What is the size of platelets? 2-4 micrometer
What is the half-life of a platelet? 8-12 Days
What organ is primarily responsible for eliminating platelets? Spleen - by the tissue macrophage system
True or False, platelets contain a nucleus? False
True or False, platelets can reproduce? False
What is the surface of platelet cell membrane composed of? Glycoproteins - avoids sticking to the endothelium
What are procoaggulants? substances that promote coagulation
What are anticoagulants? substances that inhibit coagulation
What is the role of prothrombin activator? Catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin into thrombin
What does thrombin do? It acts as an enzyme to convert fibrinogen into fibrin fibers
True or False fibrinogen has a high molecular weight? True - 340,000
True or False, platelets are necessary for clot retraction? True
Clotting factors are dependent on what vitamin? Vit K
List the types clotting factors? 1. Prothrombin 2. Protein C 3. Factor VII 4. Factor IX 5. Factor X
How many pathways are there in the coagulation cascade? 2, Extrinsic Pathway - Tissue Damage & Intrinsic Pathway - Endothelial damage
What is necessary for the activation of both pathways of the Coagulation Cascade? Phospholipids
What all is involoved in Clot retraction? 1. Prostacyclin (PGI2) 2. Tissue Plasminogen Activator (TPA) 3. Plasmin 4. Thrombin 5. Protein C and its cofactor protein S 6. Antithrombin III 7. Heparin
True or False, Strokes and Embolisms are associated w/ abnormalities in Protein C and S, Antithrombin III, and Plasminogen? True
Name 3 causes of excessive bleeding? 1. Vit. k deficeincy 2. Hemophilia 3. Thrombocytopenia
What is a thrombus? an abnormal clot that develops in the blood vessel
What is an emboli? A free flowing clot
What are the 3 causes of thromboembolic conditions? 1. Roughened Endothelial surface of a vessel 2. slow flowing blood 3. DIC - Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
What are the 2 types of anticoagulants? Heparin and Coumarins
What are the 3 types of Blood Coagulation Tests? 1. Bleeding Time 2. Clotting Time 3. Prothrombin Time

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