Four Ways of Knowing

Question Answer
What should include the Four(4) Ways of Knowing? or What are the Four(4) Ways of Knowing? 1) Empirics 2) Ethics 3) Personal 4) Aesthetics or Esthetics
What is Empirics? >the scientific discipline of Nursing
What is Ethics? >the moral directions of Nursing
What is Personal? >the method by which nurses approach their patients
What is Aesthetics or Esthetics? >deals with the emphatic aspect of Nursing
What is Empirical Knowing? >is the principal form relating factual and descriptive knowing aimed at the expansion of abstract and theoretical explanations. >the first primary model of knowing >information source of base of knowing
What is the primary model of knowing that focuses on EVIDENCE-BASED RESEARCH for effective and accurate nursing practice. >Empirical Knowing
What Knowing that most theory & research development is concentrated and some conceptual forms have better capacity to explain nursing phenomena than others? >Empirical Knowing
Situation: David, a nursing student answers a question posed by the clinical instructor based on what he learned from the school. >What example of Knowing is this? >Empirical Knowing
Can you give examples of Empirical Knowing situations? >a nurse researcher uses scientific method to produce desired study results. >a nurse practices nursing interventions based from accepted clinical practices.
Any scientific, researched-based, theoretical and factual information that the nurse makes use of is under what Knowing? What are some examples of these? >Empirical Knowing >Examples are: knowledge obtained from textbooks, lectures, journals and online resources.
What is Personal knowledge or Self-knowledge? >it is a concept and is achieved and realized by harnessing the nurse's collective stores of knowledge, character and profound experience.
What should an exemplary nurse consciously or subconscioulsy practice being called? >the FOUR WAYS of KNOWING
Why is it important in knowing oneself in the area of Nursing? >without it, one can not fully know the patient and can hinder provision of total care.
Proper Nursing actions are result of what? >Nursing actins are result of a good foundation which is an outcome of gathering and processing of information and experiences.
What is Evidence-Based Practice (EBP)? >it uses a form of evidence in making clinical judgement that may that may stem from tradition, authority, experience, trial & error, logic or reason and research. >involves accurate & thoughtful decision making about health care delivery for clients.
What are the six(6) Characteristics of Quality Health Care that Reinforces Aspects of EBP? 1)Client centered 2)Scientifically-based 3)Population outcome based 4)Developed through quality improvement & benchmarking 5)Individualized to client's need 6)Attuned with system policies and resources.
What can bridge the gap of nursing practice and research to provide basis for nurses to transform research into quality care? >The practice founded on EBP can bridge the gap fo nursing practice and research.
What is a part of Empirical Knowing that is based on the result of the most relevant and supported evidence derived from research in response to client's preferences and expectations? >Evidence-Based Practice (EBP)
What are Evidence Reports? >it is comprised of knowledge synthesis, review and documentation of how evidence-based practices are being implemented in the clinical area. >it can include discussion of the clinical significance and usefulness of such practices.
How is the Evidence-Based Practice(EBP)applied? >the nurse should: 1)become aware of the need for information, 2)develop of a question or problem statement to address the need; 3)conduct a systematic review on research studies that has been done on the particular topic.
How is Systematic Review different from Literature Review? >it utilizes all relevant literature from multiple sources which later undergoes rigorous and systematic evaluation.
What should the Analysis of data describes in Evidence Reports? >the Analysis of data describes the following: 1)Details of the analysis, 2)Traget population included in the study, 3)Types of clinical interventions investigated, 4)Strengths of individual and collective study results.
What practice research promotes quality care that has been demonstrated to be effective? >Evidence-Based Practice (EBP)
What is Aesthetic Knowing? >also known as Esthetics Knowing >is related to understanding what is of significance to particular patients such as feelings, attitudes, points of view (Carper 1978) >the manifestation of the creative and expressive styles of the nurse (Kenney 1996)
What knowing is used int he process of giving appropriate nursing care through understanding the uniqueness of every patient, thus emphasizing use of creative and practical styles of care? >Aesthetic Knowing
What Knowing focuses on Empathy? >Aesthetics Knowing
What is Empathy? >the ability for sharing or vividly understanding another's feelings. >the primary form of Aesthetic Knowing
What type of Knowing includes the nurse's ability in changing ways and manner of rendering nursing care based on the client's individual needs and perceptions? >Aesthetic Knowing
What type of Knowing is done to know the distinctive individual instead as a typical, stereotype whole? (Carper 1978;Kenney 1996) >Aesthetic Knowing
Situation: Nurse places himself in the "patient's shoes" when communicating, giving judgement and providing care. What example of Knowing is this? >Aesthetic Knowing
Is showing compassion, mercy and understanding towards patients, co-workers and supervisors, an act of Aesthetic Knowing? Why? >Yes, it is an act of Aesthetic Knowing >Empathy is shown, applied to the patient.
When a nurse uses layman terms in explaining the needs of the patient, is the Knowing applied Empirical, Aesthetic or Personal? Why? >Aesthetic Knowing >by applying Aesthetic Knowing, the nurse is able to use creativesness for the patient to better understand his/her condition.
What is Ethical Knowing? >requires knowledge of different philosophical positions regarding what is good and right in making moral actions and decisions, particularly in the theoretical and clinical components of nursing.
What application of Knowing that involves the judgement of right and wrong in relation to intentions, reasons and attributes of individuals ans situations? >Ethical Knowing
What is the main basis for Ethical Knowing? >main basis for Ethical Knowing: 1)Code of Morals and, 2)Code of Ethics
Situation: Nurse presents himself as a patient advocate and defends his client's right to choose care. What is the kind of Knowing that is being applied in the situation? >Ethical Knowing
Is the type of Knowing applied to the situation below, the Ethical Knowing? Why? Situation: a clinical instructor reprimands a student who cheated on a quiz and explains the consequences. >Ethical Knowing
What is the kind of knowing when the concepts behind organ donation to a terminally-ill patient is being explained? >Ethical Knowing
Why is nursing a core service in society? >Nursing is a core service in society because it lessens suffering, upholds and preserves health.
What type of Knowing that includes all deliberate nursing actions involving and under the jurisdiction of ethics and professionalism? (Kenney 1996) >Ethical Knowing
What is Personal Knowing? >encompasses knowledge of the self in relation to others and to self. >It involves the entirety of the Nurse-Patient Relationships. >focused on realizing, meeting and defining the real, true self.
What is the type of Knowing that: 1)is the most difficult to master and teach; 2)the key to comprehending health in terms of personal well-being; 3)involves therapeutic use of self. >Personal Knowing
What type of Knowing that stresses that human beings are not in a fixed state but are constantly engaged in a dynamic state of changes? (Kenney 1996) >Personal Knowing
What kind of Knowing that takes a lot of time to fully know the nature of oneself in relation to the world around? >Personal Knowing
Situation: a nursing student, stirves to promote a meaningful personal relationship with his elderly patient. What kind of knowing is being applied here? >Personal Knowing
Situation: a nursing student undergoes Psychological Counseling and Self-Awareness sessions before his Psychiatric Nursing rotation. What type of Knowing is being applied? Why? >Personal Knowing

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