Review cell structure and the function carried out by these structures.

Question Answer
The primary four elements that make up a cell. carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen
The three main regions of a cell. nucleus, cytoplasm, plasma membrane
The three recognizable regions of the nucleus. nuclear envelope, chromatin, nucleoli
Where ribosomes are assembled. nucleoli
DNA combined with protein; forms a loose network of bumpy threads. chromatin
Part of the cell that contains DNA. nucleus
Fragile, transparent barrier that contains the cell contents and separates them from the surrounding environment. plasma membrane
Projections that increase the cells surface area for absorption. microvilli
The 3 types of cell junctions. tight, desmosomes, gap
Impermeable junction that binds cells together like a zipper. tight
Anchoring junction that prevents cells subjected to mechanical stress from being pulled apart. Buttonlike. desmosomes
Junction that forms mainly to allow communication between cells. gap
The cellular material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane.*Hint: the factory area cytoplasm
The cytoplasm contains what three main elements? cytosol, organelles, inclusions
The metabolic machinery of the cell. organelles
The semi-transparent fluid that suspends the other elements. cytosol
Chemical substances that may or may not be present (lipid droplets, glycogen granules, pigment, mucus, crystals, etc.) inclusions
Enzymes in this organelle carry out the reactions in which oxygen is used to break down foods. Forms ATP. mitochondria
The actual sites of protein synthesis in the cell. ribosomes
Mini-circulatory system for the cell. Forms channels for carrying substances (primarily proteins) from one part of the cell to another. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
What makes rough ER rough? The ribosomes that stud the sides.
The cells "membrane factory". Proteins made on the ribosomes are transported and folded into their functional shapes and dis.ed. rough ER
Plays no role in protein synthesis. Functions in lipid metabolism and the detoxification of drugs and pesticides. smooth ER
Organelle that modifies and packages proteins for transport.*Hint: the traffic director Golgi apparatus
Membranous "bags" that contain powerful digestive enzymes. Disposes of bacteria and cell debris.*Hint: the demolition site lysosome
Use molecular oxygen to detoxify harmful or poisonous substances. "Disarm" free radicals. peroxisomes
The cells "bones and muscle". An elaborate network of proteins providing an internal framework. cytoskeleton
Generate microtubules. During cell division, direct the formation of the mitotic spindle. centriols
Whip-like extensions that move substances along the cells surface. cilia
The flagellum is a specialized version of ______ found only on the sperm. cilia
The two types of cells that connect body parts. fibroblast, erythrocyte
Cell that covers and lines body organs. epithelial
The two types of cells that move organs and body parts. skeletal muscle, smooth muscle
Cell that stores nutrients. fat cell
Cell that fights disease. macrophage
Cell that gathers information and controls body functions. nerve cell (neuron)
The two cells of reproduction. oocyte, sperm
A homogeneous mixture of 2 or more components. solution
The substance present in the largest amount in a solution. solvent
The components of a solution found in smaller quantities than the solvent. solutes
Fluid that continuously bathes the exterior of our cells. interstistal fluid
The types of passive transport. diffusion (osmosis if water), filtration
Unassisted diffusion of solutes through the plasma membrane. simple diffusion
Type of diffusion in which protein membrane channels are used to transport solutes. facilitated diffusion
Law of diffusion. Molecules move down their concentration gradient.
The process by which water and solutes are forced through a membrane by fluid, or hydrostatic, pressure. filtration
Uses ATP to energize its protein carriers, or solute pumps, to move materials against the concentration gradient. active transport
The 2 types of vesicular tranport in which substances are moved into or out of the cell without actually crossing the plasma membrane. endocytosis, exocytosis
The process by which cells actively secrete hormones, mucus, other cell products, or cellular waste. Uses ATP. exocytosis
Includes the ATP-requiring processes that take up, or engulf, extracellular substances. endocytosis
Version of endocytosis in which the particles are relatively large such as bacteria or dead body cells. phagocytosis (cell eating)
The process by which cells "drink". pinocytosis
Version of endocytosis in which plasma membrane receptor proteins bind only with certain substances. receptor-mediated endocytosis
The 6 phases of cell division. interphase, early prophase, late prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis
The division of the cytoplasm during cell division. cytokenesis
Cell division stage at which the chromosomes cluster and become aligned at the center of the spindle. metaphase
Defined as a DNA segment. gene
Biological catalysts that regulate chemical reactions in the cells. enzymes
Differs from DNA in that it is single stranded. RNA
Involves the transfer of information from DNA's base sequence into the complementary base sequence of mRNA. transcription
In this phase of protein synthesis, the "language" of nucleic acids is translated into the "language" of proteins by various forms of RNA. translation

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