Phlebotomy, Infection Control


Question Answer
What is another name for Hospital acquired infection? Noscomial (NOS) Infections.
Define infection. Invasion of micro-organisms in the body that cause disease.
What are the three links in the so called "chain of infection"? 1. Source. 2. Means of transmission. 3. Suseptible host.
What is Universal precautions? Assume EVERONE is infected.
Name four infectious organisms that cause the human body disease? Viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists.
What are the five ways infectious agents can be spread? (means of transmission). 1.Contact (direct or indirect). 2. Droplet. 3. Airborne. 4. Common vehicle. 5. Vector.
Which means of transmission is the most common? Contact transmission.
Explain Contact transmission. Direct:::Transfer of microorganisms from an infected person directly to a susceptible host by physical contact. Indirect:::involves contact between a susceptible host and a fomite. (needle, medical instruments, bedrail)
What different ways can a person get infected by droplet transmission? Droplets,(sneezing,coughing,talking). Liquid splashes and aerosol when uncapping a tube.
How big is a droplet particle? 5 micrometers or more. Usually won't travel further than 3 feet.
What is airborne transmission? Airborne droplet nuclei or dust particles that contain the infectious microorganism.
How big is a droplet nuclei? Smaller that 5 micrometers. Stays in air longer, and can be inhaled causing disease.
What are some diseases that usually spread by droplet nuclei? Mycobacterium tuberculosis,Rubeola(measles) and Varicella-zoster(chickenpox)
What are some infectious agents spread by air is commonly found in the environment? Aspergilus and anthrax.
What is "Common vehicle transmission"? common source of infection. Food, water, medicatons etc.
Give two examples of infections caused by common vehicle. Salmonellosis and Listeriosis.
What is Vector Transmission? Infections carried by insects and ticks that are not harmed by their presence. Called VECTOR
Give examples of Vector transmitted diseases. Malaria, Yellow fever, Lyme disease, Rocky mountain spotted fever.
How does the chain of infection get broken? By disrupting the continious chain from source to host. Mainly by using Personal Protective Equipment(PPE). Standard precautions & exposure control plan.
What is the single most important and effective means of preventing the spread of infections? Hand hygene
What are the required PPE for Phlebotomists every time they draw blood? Lab coat & gloves.
When would you use a face shield? When there is risk of splatter or large droplet transmission.
When would you use a mask? Splatter & droplet transmission risk. Droplet nuclei (coughing etc.)
What is the purpose of a respirator as personal protection? They prevent the inhalation of airborne microorganisms. Filters out 95% of of airborne particles and have standards set by OSHA. Also called N95
What does OSHA mean? The Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
What is the purpose of OSHA? It is a regulatory enforcement agency for employee health and safety that has authority over ALL industries.
(NOTE) Read The Bloodbourne Pathogens Standard set by OSHA, on pg. 44. Read
What does Isolation mean? the separation of an infection source from a susceptible host.
Give an example of when Isolation would be used? To protect a patient from infectious agents in the environment or carried by staff or visitors.----Can also be used to protect the staff, visitors or other patients if the patient is infected.
What is negative air pressure? Air flows in to room, not out. Commonly with TB
What is Protective Environment? (PE) An immunocompromised person may have their own isolation room in order to minimize the risk of acquring an infection.
Explain the 2 tiers of Isolation Precautions. Tier 1 uses standard precautions. Tier 2 uses Expanded precautions. Here the patient is known or suspected of harboring infectious disease like MRSA or VRE.
What are the three EP's? (expanded precautions) Airborne, Droplet & contact.
Give examples of how the Phlebotomist may be exposed to BBPs? (bloodbourne pathogens) Needle stick***Scalpel cuts etc.****contact of mucuous membrane by splash or touch****contact with non-intact skin with gloves etc.***contact with lab equipment contaminated with fluids by nail biting etc.***Droplet aerosol by removal of top of tube.***
How long can the HIV virus live outside the body? 1-3 days AFTER drying!
What solution would we use when disenfection our Phlebotomy tray? 10% bleach solution-freshly made.
If you drop and spill a tube of blood, what would be the general guide line for clean up? Wear gloves. Use 10% bleach solution as disinfectant. Clean up visible blood first. Disinfect entire area. Allow bleach to remain in contact with area for 20 minutes.
What does Neutropenic Transmission mean? Exposing and immune compromised patient to infection.
What are Neutropenic Precautions? Wash hands prior to entering patient room. Wear mask. Don't enter if you have a cold. No flowers or plants.
How long should you wash your hands? 15 seconds.



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