BIO202 - Ch 22 - Respiratory System - Marieb/Hoehn - RioSalado - AZ


Question Answer
Respiratory system includes __. Nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, & lungs.
Respiratory zone Actual site of gas exchange - bronchioles, aveolar ducts, alveoli, & microscopic structures.
Conducting zone Rigid conduits for air to reach gas exchange sites.
Which organ contains both conducting & respiratory zone structures? The lungs
Under normal resting conditions, arterial blood hemoglobin is __% saturated. 98
Under normal resting conditions, venous blood hemoglobin is __% saturated. 75
BPG 2,3-biphosphoglycerate - binds w/hemoglobin & is produced by RBCs as they break down glucose by anaerobic glycolysis.
Bohr effect Enhances oxygen unloading - declining blood pH (acidosis) & increase Pco2 weakens Hb-O2 bond
Cyanosis occurs when Hb saturation falls below __. 75%
Ischemic (stagnant) hypoxia results __. when blood circulation is impaired or blocked.
Cyanide poisioning causes __ hypoxia. histotoxic - body cells unable to use O2
Hypoxemic hypoxia Due to abnormal ventilation - perfusion exchange - pulmonary disease - lack of O2 in air.
Normal body cells produce __ ml of CO2 each minute. 200
Pulmonary surfactant Substance that reduces surface tension of watery film between alveoli - w/o it surface tension can collapse.
Carbonic anhydrase Enzyme in RBCs that catalyze unbound CO2 to carbonic acid - maintains gradient so CO2 leaves fluid & enters blood.
Cerebrospinal fluid & CO2 Bathes medulla - a drop in pH stimulates receptors to change breathing rate.
Carotid bodies & aortic bodies Receptors that detect levels of O2 & CO2 in arterial blood.
CO2 is transported primarily as __ in plasma. bicarbonate ion (HCO3)
Haldane effect The lower the Hb saturation w/oxygen, the more CO2 can be carried in blood.
The Haldane effect encourages __ exchange in tissues & lungs. CO2
Excess H+ is removed by forming __. carbonic acid - This is the carbonic acid - bicarbonate buffer system.
Slow, shallow breathing allows CO2 to __. accumulate in blood & blood pH drops
Rapid, deep breathing reduces __. CO2 out of blood & increase pH.
Breathing involves neurons in __. reticular formation of medulla & pons.
Dorsal respiratory group (DRG) Neurons in root of cranial nerve IX - integrates input from stretch & chemoreceptors & communicates w/VRG.
Ventral respiratory group (VRG) Neurons in ventral brain stem - rhythm-generating & integrative center.
Average breaths per minute. 12-15 eupnea
What generates gasping during severe hypoxia? VRG networks
Pontine respiratory group Fine tunes breathing rhythms generated by VRG
Respiratory rate is determined by __. how long inspiratory center is active
Most important factors that influence breathing rate & depth. Levels of CO2, O2 & H+ in arterial blood as sensed by chemoreceptors in medulla - aortic arch & carotid arteries.
Arterial Pco2 is normally __ mm Hg. 40
hypercapnia pH drops in cerebrospinal fluid - CO2 levels rise in blood.
hyperventilation removes __. CO2 - low CO2 in blood (hypocapnia).
Main oxygen sensors Chemoreceptors in carotid bodies
How to get rid of excess acid in blood. Increase respiratory rate & depth.
__ in blood pH inhibits respiration. Increase
The __ modifies respiration rate & depth in response to emotion & temp. hypothalamus
Hering-Breuer reflex (inflation) Protective response to prevent excessive stretching of lungs.
Dyspnea Air hunger - labored breathing
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Causes secretion of abnormally thick mucus - air sacs become cysts.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Lung condition - neutrophils secrete chemicals that increase capillary permeability & edema results - often lethal.
Adenoidectomy Surgical removal of an infected pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids)
Cheyne-Stokes breathing Abnormal breathing pattern seen just before death - trauma & hypoxia of brain stem & CO2 pressure imbalances in CSF.
Endotracheal tube Thin plastic tube through trachea through nose or mouth - delivers oxygen to patients who are breathing inadequately.
Epistaxis Nosebleed
Orthopnea Inability to breathe in horizontal position.
Otorhinolaryngology Branch of medicine dealing w/diagnosis & treatment of ears, nose & throat.
Pulmonary embolism Obstruction of pulmonary artery by an embolus (blood clot)- chest pain, bloody cough, tachycardia, & rapid, shallow breathing.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Unexpected death of an apparently healthy infant during sleep.



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