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Thread: pharmacology

  1. #1
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    Default pharmacology



    pharmacology


    Question Answer
    study of the interaction of drugs and subcellular entities such as enzymes and DNA is called molecular pharmacology
    suppositories are administered via rectum
    drugs are swallowed and absorbed through the intestinal tract during oral administration
    penicillin is an example of which type of drug antibiotic
    a drug that works against fever antipyretic
    drugs that control anxiety and severe disturbances of behavior tranquilizers
    the study of drug effects in the body is called pharmacodynamics
    what is anaphylaxis a type of hypersensitivity reaction
    the measurement if drug concentration in tissues and in blood over time is called pharmacokinetics
    morphine is an analgesic
    Heparin is an anticoagulant
    amphetamine and caffeine are stimulants
    the study of how drugs interact with subcellular parts is called molecular pharmacology
    the study fo the harmful effects of drugs is called toxicology
    drugs that widen blood vessels are vasodilators
    drugs that reduce blood pressure are antihypertensive
    anticonvulsants are used to treat epilepsy
    antacids are used to treat epigastric discomfort
    analgesics are used to treat myalgia
    progestins are used to treat abnormal uterine bleeding due to hormonal imbalance



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  2. #2
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    Default Pharmacology

    Pharmacology


    Question Answer
    pharmacodynamics the study of molecular interactions bw drugs and body constituents. Biochemical, phisiologic effects and mechanisms of action of drugs.
    First step in initiating a drug-induced effect formation of a complex bw the drug and a receptor
    Receptor site the area where a drug acts to initiate a series of biochemical and physiological effects; site of action
    Mechanism of action events leading to an effect
    Antacids neutralize gastric acid (no receptor effect)
    Receptor Cellular macromoleecule. Metabolic regulatory enzymes/co-enzymes/proteins-glycoproteins
    Drugs receptor interactions Ionic, hydrogen, hydrophobic, Van der Waals, least desireable covalent
    Affinity Related to drug's chemical structure
    Expression of affinity dissociation constant Kd
    Kd concentration of a drug required to achieve 50 percent occupancy of its receptors
    Governs drug-receptor interactions Law of mass action- for a given concentration reactant and a given product is equal at a constant pressure
    Agonist Drug with stimulatory effect on a receptor
    Weak agonist must be bound to many receptors to produce the same effect as a strong agonist.
    Antagonist Drugs which interfere with activities of an agonist
    Competitive antagonist binds the agonist binding domain, but increasing the concentration of the agonist over the antagonist can produce a physiologic response.Thus the it forms a reversible drug-receptor complex and is consequently surmountable.
    irreversible antagonist antagonist, which competes with an agonist for the agonist-binding domain, and then forms a permanent drug-receptor complex, which cannot be overcome by high concentrations of the agonist;insurmountable
    noncompetitive antagonist antagonist, which binds a site on the receptor other than the agonist-binding domain, produces a conformational change, and irreversibly prevents an agonist-receptor interaction. increase in agonist will not produce expected response;insurmountable
    Classification of receptors type of drug that they interact with or according to the specific physiologic response a drug produces. Number of receptors can be up-down regulated depending.
    Activate acetylcholine receptors muscarine, nicotine, (aka ach binds two types of different receptors)
    Antagonist of muscarine atropine
    Antagonist of nicotine curare
    Efficacy magnitude of response obtained from optimal receptor site occupancy by a drug. related to its chemical structure (structural activity relationship (SAR)
    dose-response curve visual and mathematical representation of the response of a specific drug in relationship to the amount of the drug administered
    plateau of dose- response curve efficacy or the maximal effect of the drug
    Potency relates two or more drugs by comparing the doses required to produce a given effect
    Drug A is more potent than drug B If for any given effect, the dose of drug A is always smaller than that required for drug B. The maximal effect of drug A (A1) is reached at a lower dose than the same maximal effect of drug B (B1). Drug A is considered more potent than drug B yet they ha
    Toxicity those effects, which are not desired for the given therapeutic use of a drug. exaggerations of direct effects seen at higher available dosages or multiple concurrent "side" effects occurring at therapeutic dosage levels
    Effectvie dose 50- (ED50) The dose of a drug required to produce a response of specific intensity in 50 percent of the individuals within the same population
    Lethal dose 50 The dose of a drug required to cause death in 50 percent of the individuals within the same population
    margin of safety ratio of LD50/ED50. farther apart these two curves are the wider.
    Most drugs ( in terms of getting into cells) are weak acids or weak bases too large to pass through aqueous channels. passage of these drug molecules across cell membranes is achieved by passive diffusion along a concentration gradient based on molecular weight, lipid solubility,pka, structure
    PHARMACOKINETICS drug movement accross membranes.
    Passive diffusion The way most drugs pass throug membranes ( fairly large weak acids or weak bases)
    Aqueous channels Small water soluble drugs use this as a result of hydrostatic or osmotic differences across biologic membranes, by a process known as filtration
    facilitated diffusion drug to be carried forms a complex with a component of the cell membrane on one side, the complex is carried through the membrane, the drug is released, and the carrier returns to repeat the process. Does not require energy/not against conc. gradient.
    active transport transport system characterized by selectivity, competitive inhibition, requirement for energy, saturability, and movement against an electrochemical gradient
    pinocytosis Water-insoluble substances such as vitamins A, D, E, and K are engulfed by cell membranes and are released unchanged in the cytoplasm
    More readily diffuse accross membrane: nonpolar vs polar Nonpolar, unionized molecules are usually lipid soluble and will more readily diffuse across biological membranes. Ionized, polar fractions, on the other hand, are less lipid soluble
    More absorbable in ECM? aqueous or oily Aqueous solutions of drugs are more readily absorbed into the extracellular fluid than oily suspensions
    More absorbable? High concentration of drug or low concentration Solutions of high concentration are more readily absorbed than low concentrations of the same drug
    Enteral administration of drug oral route is the most common, convenient, and economical method of drug administration. It is also the most unpredictable
    What influences the absorption of a enterally administered drug? drug’s formulation, the pH of the gastrointestinal tract, the presence of food in the stomach, gastric motility, splanchnic blood flow, first pass .metabolism in the liver, and importantly, patient compliance
    Parenteral Intravenous (IV) administration provides for accurate and immediate deposition of drugs, at the desired concentration, into the blood stream. No recall.
    subcutaneous (SC) injections rate of absorption into the blood stream is slow and sufficiently constant to provide a sustained effect
    incorporation of a vasoconstrictor retard the rate of absorption
    Intramuscular (IM) injections rapid absorption of aqueous solutions into the blood stream. Oily or other nonaqueous vehicles may provide slow, constant absorption
    Topical passive diffusion is proportional to their concentration and lipid solubility. direct absorption has advantages over enteric administration, since it circumvents the metabolic first-pass breakdown in the liver
    Inhalation of drug must cross the alveoli, travel the systemic blood flow and then act at the appropriate effector site. Concentration is controlled at the alveolar level, since most of these drugs are exhaled immediately
    Rectal administration of drug may be useful in young children and for unconscious or vomiting patients, however, absorption is unpredictable
    Organs that recieve most of drugs upon minutes of absorption heart, liver, kidney, and brain will receive most of the drug within minutes of absorption. Muscle, most viscera, skin, and fat may require much longer time before equilibrium is achieved
    Drugs to the CNS restricted by the blood-brain barrier. However, the only limiting factor associated with highly lipid-soluble drugs is cerebral blood flow
    Following absorption drugs are distributed both into the extracellular and intracellular environment. Diffusion into the extracellular space occurs rapidly. However, many drugs are bound to plasma proteins, which limit their concentration in tissues and at their site of actio
    Protein binding non-selective process and many drugs compete with each other and endogenous substances for these binding sites. Drugs may also accumulate in tissues in higher than expected concentration as a result of the pKa of the drug and the pH of the environment
    Elimination of lipid-soluble weak acids and bases not readily eliminated from the body. Metabolism fosters drug excretion by biotransforming them into more polar, water-soluble fractions although many drug metabolites maintain a degree of pharmacological activity
    biotransformation termination of drug action if drug metabolites are active (or by excretion)
    chemical reactions associated with biotransformation nonsynthetic (Phase I) or synthetic (Phase II)
    Phase I chemical reaction assoc with biotransformation a drug is oxidized or reduced to a more polar compound
    Phase II chemical reaction associated with biotransformation endogenous macromolecule is conjugated to the drug. Drugs undergoing conjugation reactions (Phase II) may have already undergone Phase I biotransformation
    biotransformation of most drugs hepatic microsomal enzyme (cytochrome P450) system; inducible
    secondary contrbutors to p450 system in biotransformation plasma, kidney, lung, and the gastrointestinal tract also make notable contributions (also, noninducible nonmicrosomal enzymes)
    Eliminated more readily? polar or high lipid soluble drugs Polar
    Before lipid soluble drugs are secreted have to be metabolized to more polar fractions
    Most important organ for elimination of drugs kindney
    Renal excretion may involve three processes glomerular filtration which depends on fractional plasma protein binding and filtration rate; active tubular excretion, a non-selective carrier system for organic ions; and passive tubular reabsorption of unionized drugs, which result in net passive reabs
    metabolites formed in the liver excreted via the bile into the intestinal tract. If these metabolites are subsequently hydrolyzed and reabsorbed from the gut (enterohepatic recirculation), drug action is prolonged
    Pulmonary excretion important mainly for the elimination of anesthetic gases and vapors. Other routes, such as saliva, sweat, and tears, are quantitatively unimportant
    elimination of most drugs from the body follows follows exponential or first-order kinetics. Assuming a relatively uniform distribution of a drug within the body (considered to be a single compartment), first-order kinetics implies that a constant fraction of the drug is eliminated per unit time
    exponential kinetics may be expressed by its constant (k), the fractional change per unit time, or its half-life (t1/2), the time required for the plasma concentration of a drug to decrease by 50 percent.
    distribution half-life (t 1/2) represents the rapid decline in plasma drug concentration as 50 percent of the drug is distributed throughout the body
    elimination half-life (t 1/2) reflects the time required to metabolize and excrete 50 percent of the drug from the system
    plateau level of accumulation of the drug over four half-lives plateau, known as the steady-state concentration, represents a rate of administration that is equal to the rate of elimination
    Half lives to eliminate drug from the body half-lives to eliminate a drug from the body
    zero-order kinetics implying that a constant amount of the drug is eliminated per unit time;alcohol
    Pharmacotherapeutic principles relate to the use of drugs in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease
    influences the onset and duration of drug action The dosing regimen (route, amount, and frequency of drug administration)
    desired full effect of a drug must be achieved promptly a loading dose, larger than the maintenance dose, must be employed
    individual effective dose dose of a drug required to produce a specific response in an individual. If takes unexpectedly high dose, the patient is said to be hyporeactive,may also be described as tolerance
    tachyphylaxis When tolerance develops rapidly, subsequent to the administration of only a few doses of a drug
    idiosyncrasy unusual reaction of any intensity, irrespective of drug dosage, observed in a small percentage of the patients
    Optimum therapeutic doses amount of drug per kilogram of body weight of the patient
    Fetal abnormalities drugs are considered to be responsible for 1 to 5 percent Each drug has a threshold concentration above which fetal abnormalities can occur and below which no effects are discernible
    Whether a drug reaches the threshold concentration in the fetus depends on chemical nature of the agent (molecular weight, protein binding, lipid solubility, pKa) and maternal pharmacokinetic factors
    Most drugs in the maternal bloodstream cross the placenta by simple diffusion along the concentration gradient. During early pregnancy the placental membrane is relatively thick which tends to reduce permeability. The thickness decreases and the surface area of the placenta increases in the later trimesters.
    Category A fetal risks Controlled studies in both humans and animals have failed to show a risk to the fetus, the risk appears remote
    Category B fetal risks Animal studies have shown no risk, but there are no controlled human studies; or animal studies have shown a risk, but human studies have not
    Category C fetal risks Animal studies have shown a risk, but there are no controlled human studies; or there are no available animal or human studies
    Category D fetal risks Evidence of risk exists, but benefit may outweigh risk in certain situations
    Category X fetal risks Risk exists and outweighs any possible benefit of use
    Human teratogenecity not predictable
    Most common trimester to see major defects during the critical period of organogenesis (first trimester) Exposure during the second and third trimesters will primarily affects organ function)
    Any drug in the fetal compartment at the time of birth must rely on the infant’s own metabolic and excretory capabilities, which have not yet fully developed. Consequently, drugs given near term, especially those with long half-lives, may have a prolonged action on the newborn
    rate of passage of a drug from plasma to milk depends on characteristics of the drug such as the drug’s molecular weight, lipid solubility, pKa, and plasma protein binding
    Small water-soluble nonelectrolytes pass into milk by simple diffusion through aqueous channels in the mammary epithelial membrane that separates plasma from milk, equilibrium is reached rapidly and the drug’s concentration in milk approximates plasma levels
    larger molecules and the mammary epithelial membrane only the lipid soluble, nonionized form passes through the membrane
    drug concentration in milk pKa of weak electrolytes is an important because the pH of milk is generally lower (more acidic) than that of plasma and milk can act as an “ion trap” for weak bases
    At equilibrium in milk basic drugs may become more concentrated in milk. Conversely, acidic drugs are limited in their ability to enter milk because the concentration of nonionized free form in milk is higher than it is in plasma and a net transfer of the drug from milk to plas
    milk-to-plasma drug-concentration ratio The ratio of drug concentration in breast milk to drug concentration in maternal plasma
    Most drugs for which data are available have a milk-to-plasma ratio of 1 or less; about 25 percent have ratios of more than 1; and about 15 percent have ratios of more than 2
    For most drugs, the dose below which there is no clinical effect in infants is unknown
    Factors that determine the advisability of using a particular drug in a nursing mother includes the potential for acute or long-term dose-related and non-dose related toxicity, dosage and duration of therapy, age of the infant, quantity of milk consumed by the infant, and the drug’s effect on lactation
    Drug safety for infants is determined primarily on the basis of the level of exposure of an infant (exposure index <10 percent) or the presence or absence of substantial short-term adverse effects
    To minimize the infant’s exposure to medications in milk withhold drug therapy, delay drug therapy temporarily, choose a drug that passes poorly into milk, use alternative routes of drug administration (i.e., topical, inhalation), advise the mother to avoid nursing at peak plasma concentrations of the drug
    To minimize the infant’s exposure to medications in milk 2 administer the drug to the mother before the infant’s longest sleep period, and/or withhold breastfeeding temporarily
    Dosage forms are usually designed with the adult population in mind, and the dosage cannot easily be individualized for children
    Even when appropriate dosage forms for children are available palatability, resistance to taking medications, and compliance issues may hinder optimal therapy. Finally, children often react differently than adults to certain medications (i.e., paradoxical hyperactivity, which may be observed in children taking chlor
    inappropriate for pediatric patients acetylsalicylic acid (Reye syndrome)
    At birth, the gastric pH is neutral but falls to values of 1-3 in the first day of life
    Drugs, which require an acid environment for absorption, may have what in children poor bioavailability
    medications, which are acid-labile, may actually have what in children increased bioavailability in young children
    Absorption in children is sometimes Absorption may also be reduced by the relatively high frequency of gastroesophageal reflux (which may cause an oral dose to be spit up or vomited) and diarrhea. The rectal route may be used in situations where the oral route is not practical




  3. #3
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    Default Pharmacology

    Pharmacology


    Question Answer
    Drugs used to treat ulcers Histamine 2 antagonists, Antacids, Proton pump inhibitors, Antipeptic agents, Prostaglandins
    Action of H2 antagonists blocks the release of hydrocloric acid in response to gastrin
    Action of Antacids neutralizes acid at the chemical level
    Action of Proton Pump Inhibitors suppress the secretions of hydrocloric acid
    Action of Antipeptic agents coat the injured area in the stomach to prevent further injury from acid
    Action of Prostaglandins inhibit the secretion of gastrin and increase the secretions of the mucous lining of the stomach, providing a buffer
    H2 Antagonists drugs cimetidine (Tagament), ranitidine (Zantac), famotidine (Pepcid), nizatidine (Axid)
    G/B cimetidine Tagamet
    cinetidine (Tagamet) 1st drug in the H2antagonists class to be developed, met/live, exc/urine, CPEBM, ava in O, P forms
    G/B ranitidine Zantac
    ranitidine (Zantac) longer acting and more potent then cinetidine, met/liver, exc/urine, ava in O, P forms, CPEBM, Not associated w/antiadrenergic adverse effects
    G/B famotidine Pepcid
    famotidine (Pepcid) much more potent than cinetidine and ranitidine, ava O, IV forms, met/liver, exc/urine CPEBM
    G/B nizatidine Axid
    nizatidine (Axid) newest drug in the H2 antagonists class, similar to ranitidine, IT DIFFERS FROM OTHERS, it is exc/kidneys, w/no 1st pass effect. Drug of choice for pt w/liver dysfunctions. ava in O form, CPEBM
    CPEBM cross placenta enter breast milk
    H2 antagonists---Therapeutic acations leads to reduction in gastric acid secretion and pepsin production. Used mainly for short term use to treat duodenal ulcer. Prophylaxis of stress induced ulcer. Treatment of gastroexophageal reflux. Promotes healing and decreases pain. Relief of hear
    H2 antagonists--contraindications caution should be used during preg/lac, and w/hepatic or renal dysfuctions that could interfer with drug metabloism or excretion
    H2 antagonists--adverse effects & drug/drug interactions AE of GI:diarrhea or constipation. CNS effects: dizziness or headace. Drug/drug---warfarin (anticoagulants), alcohol




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    Default pharmacology

    pharmacology


    Question Answer
    Singulair Montelukast
    Proventil/Ventolin Albuterol
    Lexapro escitalopram
    Nexium esomeprazole
    Synthroid levothyroxine
    Amoxil/Trimox Amoxicillin
    Norvasc Amlodipine
    Lopressor/Toprol Metoprolol
    Lipitor atorvastatin
    Lortab Hydrocodone/APAP
    Klor-Con Potassium Chloride
    Cialis Tadalafil
    Restoril Temazepam
    Depakote Divalproex
    Imdur/Monoket Isosorbide/Mononitrate
    Abilify aripiprazole
    Niaspan Niacin
    Namenda Mementine
    Vasotec Enalapril
    Zantac Ranitidine
    Effexor XR Venlafaxine
    Zocor Simvastatin
    Dyazide HCTZ/Triamterene
    Altrace Ramapril
    Keflex Cephalexin
    Glucophage Metformin
    Tenormin Atenolol
    Lotrel Amlodipine/Benazepril
    Protonix Pantoprazole
    Nasonex Mometasone
    Crestor Rosuvastatin
    Levaquin Levofloxacin
    Actos Pioglitazone
    Coreg Carvedilol
    Celebrex Celocoxib
    Flomax Tamsulosin
    Actonel Risedronate
    Avandia Rosiglitazone
    Seroquel Quetiapine
    Wellbutrin Bupropion
    Zetia Ezetimibe
    Premarin Conj. Estrogen
    Diovan HCT Valsartan/HCTZ
    Risperdal Risperdone
    Percocet Oxycodone/APAP
    Vytorin Ezetimibe/Simvastatin
    Plavix Clopidogrel
    Diovan Valsartan
    Deltasone Prednisone
    Zithromax Azithromycin




  5. #5
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    Default pharmacology

    pharmacology


    Question Answer
    Zantac ranitidine
    Cialis tadalafil
    Vasotec enalapril
    Namenda mementine
    Klor-Con potassium chloride
    Restoril temazepam
    Depakote divalproex
    abilify aripiprazole
    Imdur/ Monoket isosorbide mononitrate
    Niaspan niacin
    Lortab hydrocodone/ asap
    Lipitor atorvastatin
    lopressor/ toprol metoprolol
    Norvasc amlodipine
    Amoxil/trimox amoxicillin
    Synthroid levothyroxine
    Nexium esomeprazole
    Lexapro escitalopram
    Proventil/Ventolin albuterol
    Singulair montelukast




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    Default Pharmacology

    Pharmacology


    Question Answer
    Acne Retin-A
    Glaucoma Alphagan
    Athlete's Foot Tolnaftate
    Gout Indocin
    Otitis media Amoxil
    Vomiting Phenergan
    h. Pylori Nexium
    GERD Reglan
    Motion sickness Antivert
    Nausea Zofran
    Cough, nonproductive Robitussin DM
    Allergies, antihistamine Zyrtec
    COPD Combivent
    Cough, productive Robitussin
    Allergies, decongestant Pseudoephedrine
    Lasix Diuretic
    Ticlid Antiplatelet
    Nitrodur Vasodilator
    Norpace Anti-arrythmic
    Lopid Antihyperlipedemic
    Klonopin Bi-polar disorder
    Ativan Anxiety
    Paxil Depression
    Ambien Insomnia
    Concerta ADD/ADHD
    Diflucan Fungal Infections
    Cipro Bacterial Infections
    acyclovir Herpes Virus
    Xeloda Cancer
    Combivir HIV/AIDS
    Sumycin Tetracycline
    Levaquin Quinolone/fluroqouinolone
    Bactrim DS Sulfur-containing antibiotic
    Keflex Cephalosporin
    Biaxin Macrolide
    Cipro UTI
    Clomid Infertility, female
    Flomax BPH
    Parlode Infertility, male
    Ortho Novum 7/7/7 Contraceptive




  7. #7
    pathologist is offline Senior Member Post Graduate pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute
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    Default Pharmacology

    Pharmacology


    Question Answer
    Acetylcholine Muscarinic and Nicotinic agonist, hydrolysis by AchE and BchE, used investigationally
    Carbamylcholine muscarinc and nicotinic agonist, slower hydrolysis by AchE and BchE, used for open angle gloucoma (contract ciliary muscle)
    Pilocarpine Passes through the BBB, high selectivity for musc over nic receptors, slow hydrolysis by AchE and BchE, treat open and narrow angle glaucoma, dry mouth, treat musc antagonist poisoning
    9 Adverse effects of muscarinic antagonist dry mouth, dry eyes, photophobia, blurred near vision, tachycardia, inhibit sweating, urinary retention, constipation, CNS Effects (drowsiness, confustion ect)
    Atropine Musc. antagonist,
    Scopolamine musc antagonist, used for motion sickness treatment, lipid soluble
    Nicotine Nicotinic agonist-ganglionic stimulant, low doses stimulate SNS and PSNS neurons, high doses have initial stimulation then a blockade
    Hexamethonium and Mecamylamine Ganglionic blocker-nicotinic antagonist, compete with acetylcholine for binding spot (blocks), causes total blockade of ANS, orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia, photophobia etc.
    d-tubocurarine non depolarizing neuromuscular blockers, nicotinic receptor blocker Nm, causes weakness followed by paralysis, no effect on pain, reversible with AchE inhibitors
    Succinylcholine depolarizing neuromuscular blockers, Nm agonists, initial depolarizations causing fasciculations leading to paralysis, fast onset, not reversible by AchE
    Dantrolene Blocks Ca release preventing muscle contraction
    Botulinum toxin irreversible block of Ach release---muscle paralysis
    edrophonium competitive agonist of AchE, short duration reversible, used to diagnose myasthenia gravis
    Neostigmine and pyridostigmine carbamates, slow reversible block of AchE, treat MG reverse of nondepolarizing neuromusc. blockade
    Physostigmine carbamate, slow reversible block, good CNS penetration, treat OAG, alz, antimusc poisoning
    Donepezil noncarbamate, slow reversible block, good CNS penetration, treat alz
    Echothiophate organophosphate, irreversible AchE inhibitor, treat open angle glaucoma
    Phenylephrine alpha 1 agonist, causes mydriasis, CVshock, slows abs. of local anesthetics, nasal and ocular decongestion
    Oxymetazoline and tetrahydrozoline alpha 1 agonism and some alpha 2 agonism, mainly used for nasal and ocular decongestion
    Clonidine and methyldopa alpha 2 agonists, treat hypertension, reduce anxiety symptoms, analgesia, veterinary medicines, causes sedation, dry mouth, and rebound hypertension
    isoproterenol nonselective B1 and B2 agonist, increased rate and force of cardiac contraction, bronchodilation
    albuterol and terbutaline B2 agonist, treatment of asthma, bronchodilation, incrase cilliary activity, decrease mast cell activity (inflammation)
    Ritodrine B2 agonist, to relax uterus
    tyramine IASA, release NE, if taken with MAOI a massive increase in BP will occur and vasoconstriction
    Ephedrine IASA, bronchodilation B2, nasal decongestion B1, relase of NE and E causes CNS effects, is abused
    Pseudoephedrine IASA indirect acting, nasal decongestion, not as highly abused
    Amphetamine IASA indirect acting, more lipid soluble for more CNS stimulation, appetite suppression, treat ADHD, narcolepsy, high abuse potential
    Methamphetamine widely abused IASA
    Phenoxybenzamine alpha 1 & 2 antagonist, irreversible blockade, vasodilation and hypotension, tachycardia due to barorecptor reflex
    Phentolamine reversible block of alpha 1 and 2 receptors, control hypertension
    Prazozin alpha 1 antagonism, reversible, cause less tachycardia and arrhythmias, treat hypertension, CHF, peripheral vascular disease, hemmorrhagic shock, and benign prostatic hypertrophy (first dose phen---faint <---given at night)
    Tamsulosin antagonist with alpha 1 a selectivity, used to treat BPH---these a1a receptors are found mainly in the prostate, so it helps with urination
    Yohimbine alpha 2 blockers, increase SNS outflow, treatment of psycogenic impotence, postural hypotension
    Propranolol nonselective B Blocker, decrease HR, FC, CO, automaticity,inhibit renin release, slight bronchoconstriction
    atenolol B1 antagonists (also block B2s) similar to nonselective B antagonists
    Pindolol ISA, partial B agonist, reduce bradycardia in patients with excessive cardiac slowing, preserve B2 activity
    Labetalol and Carvedilol Antagonist of B and A receptors, varying activity, one is better than the other in certain situations




  8. #8
    pathologist is offline Senior Member Post Graduate pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute pathologist has a reputation beyond repute
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    Default Pharmacology

    Pharmacology


    Question Answer
    PSNS- Heart decrease HR, decrease FC in atria only, decrease conduction velocity
    PSNS-Blood vessels no innervation except at penis and vagina, NO causes dilation here
    PSNS Eye tear secretion, miosis from contraction of circular muscle, near vision due to contraction of cilliary muscle (fat lens, zonules relaxed)
    PSNS Respiratory tract contraction of smooth muscle-bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial and nasopharyngeal secretions
    PSNS GI tract increased tone and motility, increased secretions, increased salvation
    PSNS Endocrine none
    PSNS Liver None
    PSNS Urinary tract contraction of detrusor muscle (facilitates urination), relax sphincters
    PSNS Reproductive Organs penile erection-dilation of blood vessels, increased mucous secretions
    SNS Heart increased HR, increased FC in atria and ventricles, increased conduction velocity, increased automaticity
    SNS Blood vessels constriction of arteries in most tissues with alpha receptors, dilation in those with beta receptors (licver and skeletal muscle)
    SNS Respiratory Tract relaxation or bronchodilation
    SNS Eye tear secretion, mydriasis (contraction of radial muscle). minor relaxation of ciliary muscle
    SNS Skin Contraction of piloerector muscle, thermoregulatory, sweat gland stimulation
    SNS GI relax muscle tone to decrease motility, decrease secretions, increase salvation
    SNS Endocrine system inhibition a2 or slight stmulation b2 of insulin secretion
    SNS Liver glycogenolysis a1 and gluconeogenesis b2 (increases availability of glucose)
    SNS Kidney stimulate renin release b1, inhibit renin release A1
    SNS Urinary tract relax bladder detrusor (inhibit urination) contract sphinctors
    SNS reproductive organs constrict blood vessels, semen emission, relax uterus muscles




  9. #9
    internal_medicine is offline Senior Member Post Graduate internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute
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    Default pharmacology

    pharmacology


    Question Answer
    adrenergic dopamine
    adrenergic beta 1 dobutrex
    inotropic phosphodiesterase inhibitor inocor
    inotropic phosphodiesterase inhibitor primacore
    atrial natriuretic peptide hormone natrecore




  10. #10
    internal_medicine is offline Senior Member Post Graduate internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute internal_medicine has a reputation beyond repute
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    Default Pharmacology


    Pharmacology


    Question Answer
    A broad term that includes the study of drugs and their actions in the body pharmacology
    The art of preparing, compounding, and dispensing drugs for medicinal use pharmacy
    The science that deals with poisons-their detection and the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of conditions caused by them toxicology
    Any substance used as medicine (used to diagnose, cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent disease) drug
    Name four things drugs include: chemicals, plant parts or products, animal products, certain food substances
    The combined effect of two drugs that is equal to the sum of the effects of each drug taken alone additive effect
    An action, usually negative, that is different from the planned effect adverse or untoward effect
    An untoward reaction that develops after the individual has taken a drug allergic reaction
    A chemical compound that resembles another in structure but has different effects analog
    The combined effect of two drugs that is less than the effect of either drug taken alone antagonism
    Formation of a chemical compound by enzymes, either within an organism (in vivo) or in vitro by fragments of cells biosynthesis
    A decrease in activity of cells caused by the action of a drug depression
    Pertaining to the art of determining the nature of a patient's disease diagnostic
    Abnormal sensitivity to a drug, or a reaction not intended idiosyncrasy
    An agent of measure that relieves symptoms palliative
    An effect that occurs when a drug increases or prolongs the action of another drug, the total effect being greater than the sum of the effects of each used alone potentiation
    An agent or measure used to prevent disease prophylactic
    An unpredictable effect that is not related to the main action of the drugs side effect
    An increase in the activity of cells produced by drugs stimulation
    The joint action of agents in which their combined effect is more intense or longer in duration than the sum of their individual effects synergism
    Pertaining to treatment of disease therapeutic
    Increasing resistance to the usual effects of an established dosage of a drug as a result of continued use tolerance
    This law requires that every person who manufactures, dispenses, prescribes, or administers any controlled substance be registered annually with the Attorney General controlled substances act
    This is revised annually and readily supplied to all hospitals and physicians, this reference source is probably the most widely used physicians desk reference (PDR)
    Active pharmaceutical agents in a pressurized container aerosols
    Powdered drugs within a gelatin container. Liquids may be placed insoft gelatin capsules capsules
    Solutions containing alcohol, sugar, and water. They may or may not be aromatic and may or may not have active medicinals. Most frequently they are used as flavoring agents or solvents. elixirs
    Suspensions of fat globules in water(or water globules in fat) with an emulsifying agent (e.g., Haley's MO, Petrogalar) emulsions
    Alcoholic liquid extracts of a drug made by percolation so that 1 ml of the fluid extract contains 1 gm of the drug. Only vegetable-based drugs are used (e.g., glycyrrhiza fluid extract) fluid extracts
    Aqueous suspensions of insoluble drugs in hydrated form. Aluminum hydroxide gel, USP, is an example gels
    Mixtures of drugs with oil, soap, water, or alcohol, intended for external application with rubbing liniments
    Active pharmaceutical agents that are either layered in tablet form for release over several hours or placed in pellets within a capsule. They vary in size, and disintegrate within 8-24 hours long-acting or sustained-released dosage forms
    Aqueous preparations containing suspended materials intended for soothing, using local application lotions
    Mixtures of drugs with a fatty base for external application, usally by rubbing ointments
    Single-dose units made by mixing the powdered drug with a liquid such as a syrup and rolling it into a round or oval shape. pills
    Single-dose quantities of a drug or mixture of drugs in powdered form wrapped seperately in powder papers powders
    Aqueous liquid preparation containing one or more substances completely dissolved. Every solution has two parts: the solute(the dissolved substance) and the solvent(the substance, usually a liquid, in which the solute is dissolved solutions
    Alcoholic solutions of volatile substances. These are also known as essences spirits
    Mixtures of drugs with some firm base such as cocoa butter, which can then be molded into shape for insertion into a body orifice. suppositories
    Name three of the most common type of suppositories: vaginal, rectal, urethral
    Aqueous solutions of a sugar. These may or may not have medicinal substances added syrups
    Single-dose units made by compressing powdered drugs in a suitable mold tablets
    Alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions prepared from durgs tinctures
    Flat, round, or rectangular preparations that are held in the mouth until dissolved troches or lozenges
    Saturated solutions of volatile oils waters
    Name a solution containing alcohol: elixirs
    The proper amount of a medicine or agent prescribed for a given patient or condition dosage
    The quantity of medicine to be taken at one time or in divided amounts within a given period of time dose
    Name some factors influencing dosage: age, sex, condition of patient, psychological factors, enviornmental factors, temperature, method of administration, genetic factors, weight
    An order written by a practitioner, to be filled by a pharacist, indicating the medication needed by the patient and containing all necessary directions for the pharmacist and patient prescription
    The part of the prescription which gives directions to the pharmacist subscription
    The part of the prescription which states the name and quantities of ingredients inscription
    The part of the prescription which gives directions to the patient signatura (Sig)
    The dose of a given drug may be smaller if administered: intravenously
    When an individual reacts unusually to a drug, it is termed___________ idiosyncrasy
    A ____________ is obtained when the drug is applied in the immediate area where its effect is desired local effect
    To obtain __________________from a drug, it must first be absorbed into the blood and carried to the tissue or organ on which it acts; these drugs may be administered rectally, orally, sublingually, parenterally, or inhaled systemic effects
    This administration allows the drug to be swallowed; has the disadvantage of being slower in onset of action than parenteral administration oral administration
    This administration occurs when the drug is placed under the tongue, which is where is must be retained until dissolved sublingual administration
    This administration is intended for direct use on the respiratory tract inhaled administration
    This administration refers to all the ways in which drugs are administered with a needle; is the most efficient method of drug administration parenteral administration




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