Pharmaceutical Mathematics - Unit Conversions

Question Answer
Apothecary: ? minim = 1 fluid dram 60
Apothecary: ? fluid dram = 1 fluid ounce 8
Apothecary: ? fluid ounce = 1 pint(pt) 16
Apothecary: ? pint = 1 quart(qt) 2
Apothecary: ? quart = 1 gallon(gal) 4
Apothecary: ? grain (gr) = 1 scruple 20
Apothecary: ? scruple = 1 dram 3
Apothecary: ? dram = 1 ounce 8
Apothecary: ? ounce = 1 pound(lb) 12
Avoirdupois: ? grain = 1 ounce(oz) 437.5
Avoirdupois: ? ounce = 1 pound (lb) 16
1 meter = ? inches 39.37
1 inch = ? centimeters 2.54
1 gram = ? minim 16.23
1 fluid ounce = ? mL 29.57
1 pint = ? mL 473
1 gram = ? grain 15.432
1 kilogram = ? pound (lb) 2.2
1 grain = ? milligram 64.8
1 pound (avoir)= ? gram 454
aa of each
a.c. before meals
ad up to; to make
a.d. right ear
ad. lib. at pleasure; freely
admin. administer
a.m. morning
amp. ampul
aq. water
a.s. left ear
ASA aspirin
APAP acetaminophen
ATC around the clock
a.u. each ear
b.i.d. twice a day
BMD bone mineral density
BM bowel movement
BP blood pressure
BS blood sugar
BSA body surface area
c or c with a bar across the top with
cap. capsule
cc. cubic centimeter (mL)
CHD coronary heart disease
CHF congestive heart failure
comp. compound
d. day
dil. dilute
disc. or DC discontinue
disp. dispense
div. divide
d.t.d give of such doses
DW distilled water
D5LR dextrose 5% in lactated Ringer's
D5NS dextrose 5% in normal saline (0.9% NaCl)
D5W dextrose 5% in water
D10W dextrose 10% in water
elix. elixir
et and
ex aq. in water
f. or fl. fluid
ft. make
g gram
GI gastrointestinal glass of water
GFR glomerular filtration rate
gtt. drop
GU genitourinary
h. or hr. hour
HA headache
HBP high blood pressure
HC hydrocortisone
HRT hormone replacement therapy
h.s. at bedtime
ID intradermal
IM intramuscular
inj. injection
iso. isotonic
IU international units
IV intravenous
IVP intravenous push
IVPB intravenous piggy back
m&n morning and night
M. mix
min minute
m^2 or M^2 square meter
mcg microgram
mEq milliequivalent
mg milligram
mg/kg milligram per kilogram
mg/m^2 milligram per square meter
mL milliliter
mL/h (or mL/hr) milliter per hour
mOsm or mOsmol milliosmole
MI myocardial ischemia/infarction
MS morphine sulfate
N & V nausea and vomiting
NF national formulary
NMT not more than
No. number
noct. night
non rep. or N.R. do not repeat
NPO not by mouth
N.S. or NS normal saline
1/2NS half-strength normal saline
NTG nitroglycerin
o.d. right eye
o.s. left eye
o.u. each eye
oint. ointment
OJ orange juice
p.c. after meals
p.m. afternoon or evening
p.o. by mouth
postop postoperatively
ppm parts per million
ppb parts per billion
pr per rectum
prn or p.r.n. as needed
pt. patient
pulv. powder
q. every
q.d. every day
q.h. every hour
q.i.d. four times a day
q.o.d. every other day
q.s. or qs. a sufficient quantity
q.s. ad a sufficient quantity to make
rect. rectal or rectum
rep. repeat
R.L or R/L Ringer's Lactate
Rx prescription symbol (Recipe, you take)
s. or s with bar across the top without
Sig write on label
SL sublingual
SOB shortness of breath
sol. solution
ss. or ss with bar across the top one half
stat. immediately
subc; subq; s.c. or SQ subcutaneously
sup.; supp. suppository
susp. suspension
syr. syrup
tab. tablet
t.a.t. until all taken
tbsp. tablespoonful (15 mL)
t.i.d. three times a day
t.i.w. three times a week
top. topical
TPN total parenteral nutrition
tsp. teaspoonful (5 mL)
U; u unit (both, each)
u.d.; ut. dict. as directed
ung. ointment
URI upper respiratory infection
USP United States Pharmacopeia
UTI urinary tract infection
vol. volume
w.a. while awake
wk. week

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