Combining Form, Suffix, Prefix & Meaning

Combining Form,Suffix & Prefix Meaning
a-, an- no; not; without
ab- away from
abdomin/o abdomen
-ac pertaining to
acanth/o spiny; thorny
acetabul/o acetabulum (hip socket)
acous/o hearing
acr/o extremities; top; extreme point
acromi/o acromion (extension of shoulder bone)
actin/o light
acu/o sharp; severe; sudden
-acusis hearing
ad- toward
aden/o gland
adenoid/o adenoids
adip/o fat
adren/o adrenal gland
adrenal/o adrenal gland
aer/o air
af- toward
agglutin/o clumping; sticking together
-agon to assemble, gather
agora- marketplace
-agra excessive pain
-al pertaining to
alb/o white
albin/o white
albumin/o albumin (protein)
alges/o sensitivity to pain
-algesia sensitivity to pain
-algia pain
all/o other
alveol/o alveolus; air sac; small sac
ambly/o dim; dull
-amine nitrogen compound
amni/o amnion (sac surrounding the embryo)
amyl/o starch
an/o anus
-an pertaining to
ana- up; apart; backward; again, anew
andr/o male
aneurysm/o aneurysm (widened blood vessel)
angi/o vessel (blood)
anis/o unequal
ankyl/o stiff
ante- before; forward
anter/o front
anthrac/o coal
anthr/o antrum of the stomach
anti- against
anxi/o uneasy; anxious
aort/o aorta (largest artery)
-apheresis removal
aphth/o ulcer
apo- off, away
aponeur/o aponeurosis (type of tendon)
append/o appendix
appendic/o appendix
aque/o water
-ar pertaining to
-arche beginning
arter/o artery
arteri/o artery
arteriol/o arteriole (small artery)
arthr/o joint
-arthria articulate (speak distinctly)
articul/o joint
-ary pertaining to
asbest/o asbestos
-ase enzyme
-asthenia lack of strength
atel/o incomplete
ather/o plaque (fatty substance)
-ation process; condition
atri/o atrium (upper heart chamber)
audi/o hearing
audit/o hearing
aur/o ear
auricul/o ear
auto- self, own
axill/o armpit
azot/o urea; nitrogen
bacill/o bacilli (bacteria)
bacteri/o bacteria
balan/o glans penis
bar/o pressure; weight
bartholin/o Bartholin glands
bas/o base; opposite of acid
bi- two
bi/o life
bil/i bile; gall
bilirubin/o bilirubin
-blast embryonic; immature
-blastoma immature tumor (cells)
blephar/o eyelid
bol/o cast; throw
brachi/o arm
brachy- short
brady- slow
bronch/o bronchial tube
bronchi/o bronchial tube
bronchiol/o bronchiole
bucc/o cheek
bunion/o bunion
burs/o bursa (sac of fluid near joints)
byssin/o cotton dust
cac/o bad
calc/o calcium
calcane/o calcaneus (heel bone)
calci/o calcium
cali/o calyx
calic/o calyx
capillar/o capillary (tiniest blood vessel)
capn/o carbon dioxide
-capnia carbon dioxide
carcin/o cancerous; cancer
cardi/o heart
carp/o wrist bones (carpals)
cata- down
caud/o tail; lower part of body
caus/o burn; burning
cauter/o heat; burn
cec/o cecum (first part of the colon)
-cele hernia
celi/o belly; abdomen
-centesis surgical puncture to remove fluid
cephal/o head
cerebell/o cerebellum (posterior part of the brain)
cerebr/o cerebrum (largest part of the brain)
cerumin/o cerumen
cervic/o neck; cervix (neck of uterus)
-chalasia relaxation
-chalasis relaxation
cheil/o lip
chem/o drug; chemical
-chezia defecation; elimination of wastes
chir/o hand
chlor/o green
chlorhydr/o hydrochloric acid
chol/e bile; gall
cholangi/o bile vessel
cholecyst/o gallbladder
choledoch/o common bile duct
cholesterol/o cholesterol
chondr/o cartilage
chore/o dance
chori/o chorion (outermost membrane of the fetus)
chorion/o chorion
choroid/o choroid layer of eye
chrom/o color
chron/o time
chym/o to pour
cib/o meal
-cide killing
-cidal pertaining to killing
cine/o movement
cirrh/o orange-yellow
cis/o to cut
-clasis to break
-clast to break
claustr/o enclosed space
clavicul/o clavicle (collar bone)
-clysis irrigation; washing
coagul/o coagulation (clotting)
-coccus (-cocci, pl.) berry-shaped bacterium
coccyg/o coccyx (tailbone)
cochle/o cochlea (inner part of ear)
col/o colon (large intestine)
coll/a glue
colon/o colon (large intestine)
colp/o vagina
comat/o deep sleep
comi/o to care for
con- together, with
coni/o dust
conjunctiv/o conjunctiva (lines the eyelids)
-constriction narrowing
contra- against; opposite
cor/o pupil
core/o pupil
corne/o cornea
coron/o heart
corpor/o body
cortic/o cortex, outer region
cost/o rib
crani/o skull
cras/o mixture; temperament
crin/o secrete
-crine secrete; separate
-crit to separate
cry/o cold
crypt/o hidden
culd/o cul-de-sac
-cusis hearing
cutane/o skin
cyan/o blue
cycl/o ciliary body of eye; cycle; circle
-cyesis pregnancy
cyst/o urinary bladder; cyst; sac of fluid
cyt/o cell
-cyte cell
-cytosis condition of cells; slight increase in numbers
dacry/o tear
dacryoaden/o tear gland
dacryocyst/o tear sac; lacrimal sac
dactyl/o fingers; toes
de- lack of; down; less; removal of
dem/o people
dent/i tooth
derm/o skin
-derma skin
dermat/o skin
desicc/o drying
-desis to bind, tie together
dia- complete; through
diaphor/o sweat
-dilation widening; stretching; expanding
dipl/o double
dips/o thirst
dist/o far; distant
dors/o back (of body)
dorsi- back
-dote to give
-drome to run
duct/o to lead, carry
duoden/o duodenum
dur/o dura mater
-dynia pain
dys- bad; painful; difficult; abnormal
-eal pertaining to
ec- out; outside
echo- reflected sound
-ectasia stretching; dialation; expansion
-ectasis stretching; dialation; expansion
ecto- out; outside
-ectomy removal; excision; resection
-edema swelling
-elasma flat plate
electr/o electricity
em- in
-ema condition
-emesis vomiting
-emia blood condition
-emic pertaining to blood condition
emmetr/o in due measure
en- in; within
encephal/o brain
endo- in; within
enter/o intestines (usually small intestine)
eosin/o red; rosy; dawn-colored
epi- above; upon;/ on
epididym/o epididymis
epiglott/o epiglottis
episi/o vulva (external female genitalia)
epitheli/o skin; epithelium
equin/o horse
-er one who
erg/o work
erythem/o flushed; redness
erythr/o red
-esis condition
eso- inward
esphag/o esophagus
esthes/o nervous sensation (feeling)
esthesi/o nervous sensation
-esthesia nervous sensation
estr/o female
ethm/o sieve
eti/o cause
eu- good; normal
-eurysm widening
ex- out; away from
exanthemat/o rash
exo- out; away from
extra- outside
faci- face
fasci/o fascia (membrane supporting muscles)
femor/o femur (thigh bone)
-ferent to carry
fibr/o fiber
fibros/o fibrous connective tissue
fibul/o fibula
-fication process of making
-fida split
flex/o to bend
fluor/o luminous
follicul/o follicle; small sac
-form resembling; in the shape of
fung/i fungus; mushroom
furc/o forking; branching
-fusion to pour; to come together
galact/o milk
ganglion/o ganglion; collection of nerve cell bodies
gastr/o stomach
-gen producing; forming
-genesis producing; forming
-genic produced by or in
ger/o old age
gest/o pregnancy
gester/o pregnancy
gingiv/o gum
glauc/o gray
gli/o glue; neuroglial tissue (supportive tissue of nervous system)
-globin protein
-globulin protein
glomerul/o glomerulus
gloss/o tongue
gluc/o glucose; sugar
glyc/o glucose; sugar
glycogen/o glycogen; animal starch
glycos/o glucose; sugar
gnos/o knowledge
gon/o seed
gonad/o sex glands
goni/o angle
-grade to go
-gram record
granul/o granule (s)
-graph instrument for recording
-graphy process of recording
gravid/o pregnancy
-gravida pregnant woman
gynec/o woman; female
hallucin/o hallucination
hem/o blood
hemat/o blood
hemi- half
hemoglobin/o hemoglobin
hepat/o liver
herni/o hernia
-hexia habit
hidr/o sweat
hist/o tissue
histi/o tissue
home/o sameness; unchanging; constant
hormon/o hormone
humer/o humerus (upper arm bone)
hydr/o water
hyper- above; excessive
hypn/o sleep
hypo- sleep
hypophys/o pituitary gland
hyster/o uterus; womb
-ia condition
-iac pertaining to
-iasis abnormal condition
iatr/o physician; treatment
-ic pertaining to
-ical pertaining to
ichthy/o dry; scaly
-icle small
idi/o unknown; individual; district
ile/o ileum
ili/o ilium
immun/o immune; protection; safe
in- in; into; not
-in, -ine a substance
-ine pertaining to
infra- below; inferior to; beneath
inguin/o groin
insulin/o insulin (pancreatic hormone)
inter- between
intra- within; into
iod/o iodine
ion/o ion; to wander
-ion process
-ior pertaining to
ipsi- same
ir- in
ir/o iris (colored portion of eye)
irid/o iris (colored portion of eye)
is/o same; equal
isch/o to hold back; back
ischi/o ischium (part of hip bone)
-ism process; condition
-ist specialist
-itis inflammation
-ium structure; tissue
jaund/o yellow
jejun/o jejunum
kal/i potassium
kary/o nucleus
kerat/o horny, hard; cornea
kern- nucleus (collection of nerve cells in the brain)
ket/o ketones; acetones
kenton/o ketones; acetones
kines/o movement
kinesi/o movement
-kinesia movement
-kinesis movement
klept/o to steal
kyph/o humpback
labi/o lip
lacrim/o tear; tear duct; lacrimal duct
lact/o milk
lamin/o lamina (part of vertebral arch)
lapar/o abdominal wall; abdomen
-lapse to slide, fall, sag
laryng/o larynx (voice box)
later/o side
leiomy/o smooth (visceral) muscle
-lemma sheath, covering
-lepsy seizure
lept/o thin, slender
-leptic to seize, take hold of
leth/o death
leuk/o white
lex/o word; phrase
-lexia word; phrase
ligament/o ligament
lingu/o tongue
lip/o fat; lipid
-listhesis slipping
lith/o stone; calculus
-lithiasis condition of stones
-lithotomy incision (for removal) of a stone
lob/o lobe
log/o study of
-logy study of
lord/o curve; swayback
-lucent to shine
lumb/o lower back; loin
lute/o yellow
lux/o to slide
lymph/o lymph
lymphaden/o lymph gland (node)
lymphangi/o lymph vessel
-lysis breakdown; separation; destruction; loosening
-lytic to reduce, destroy; separate; breakdown
macro- large
mal- bad
-malacia softening
malleol/o malleolus
mamm/o breast
mandibul/o mandible (lower jaw bone)
-mania obsessive preoccupation
mast/o breast
mastoid/o mastoid process (behind the ear)
maxill/o maxilla (upper jaw bone)
meat/o meatus (opening)
medi/o middle
mediastin/o mediastinum
medull/o medulla (inner section); middle; soft, marrow
mega- large
-megaly enlargement
melan/o black
men/o menses; menstruation
mening/o meninges (membranes covering the spinal cord and brain)
meningi/o meninges
ment/o mind; chin
meso- middle
meta- change; beyond
metacarp/o metacarpals (hand bones)
metatars/o metatarsals (foot bones)
-meter measure
metr/o uterus (womb); measure
metri/o uterus (womb)
mi/o smaller; less
micro- small
-mimetic mimic; copy
-mission to send
mon/o one; single
morph/o shape; form
mort/o death
-mortem death
-motor movement
muc/o mucus
mucos/o mucous membrane (mucosa)
multi- many
mut/a genetic change
mutagen/o causing genetic change
my/o muscle
myc/o fungus
mydr/o wide
myel/o spinal cord; bone marrow
myocardi/o myocardium (heart muscle)
myom/o muscle tumor
myos/o muscle
myring/o tympanic membrane (eardrum)
myx/o mucus
narc/o numbness; stupor; sleep
nas/o nose
nat/i birth
natr/o sodium
necr/o death
nect/o to bind, tie, connect
neo- new
nephr/o kidney
neur/o nerve
neutr/o neither; neutral; neutrophil
nid/o nest
noct/i night
norm/o rule; order
nos/o disease
nucle/o nucleus
nulli- none
nyct/o night
obstetr/o midwife
ocul/o eye
odont/o tooth
odyn/o pain
-oid resembling
-ole little; small
olecran/o olecranon (elbow)
olig/o scanty
om/o shoulder
-oma tumor; mass; fluid collection
omphal/o umbilicus (naval)
onc/o tumor
-one hormone
onych/o nail (of fingers or toes)
o/o egg
oophor/o ovary
-opaque obscure
ophthalm/o eye
-opia vision
-opsia vision
-opsy view of
opt/o eye; vision
optic/o eye; vision
-or one who
or/o mouth
orch/o testis
orchi/o testis
orchid/o testis
-orexia appetite
orth/o straight
-ose full of; pertaining to; sugar
-osis condition, usually abnormal
-osmia smell
ossicul/o ossicle (small bone)
oste/o bone
-ostosis condition of bone
ot/o ear
-otia ear condition
-ous pertaining to
ov/o egg
ovari/o ovary
ovul/o egg
ox/o oxygen
-oxia oxygen
oxy- swift; sharp; acid
oxysm/o sudden
pachy- heavy; thick
palat/o palate (roof of the mouth)
palpebr/o eyelid
pan- all
pancreat/o pancreas
papill/o nipple-like; optic disc (disk)
par- other than; abnormal
para- near; beside; abnormal; apart from; along the side of
-para to bear, bring forth (live births)
-parous to bear, bring forth
parathyroid/o parathyroid glands
-paresis slight paralysis
-pareunia sexual intercourse
-partum birth; labor
patell/a patella
patell/o patella
path/o disease
-pathy disease; emotion
pector/o chest
ped/o child; foot
pelv/i pelvic bone; hip
pend/o to hang
-penia deficiency
-pepsia digestion
per- through
peri- surrounding
perine/o perineum
peritone/o peritoneum
perone/o fibula
-pexy fixation; to put in place
phac/o lens of eye
phag/o eat; swallow
-phage eat; swallow
-phagia eating; swallowing
phak/o lens of eye
phalang/o phalanges (fingers and toes)
phall/o penis
pharmac/o drug
pharmaceut/o drug
pharyng/o throat (pharynx)
phas/o speech
-phasia speech
phe/o dusky; dark
-pheresis removal
phil/o like; love; attraction
-phil attraction for
-philia attraction for
phim/o muzzle
phleb/o vein
phob/o fear
-phobia fear
phon/o voice; sound
-phonia voice; sound
-phor/o to bear
-phoresis carrying; transmission
-phoria to bear, carry; feeling (mental state)
phot/o light
phren/o diaphragm; mind
-phthisis wasting away
-phylaxis protection
physi/o nature; function
-physis to grow
phyt/o plant
-phyte plant
pil/o hair
pineal/o pineal gland
pituitar/o pituitary gland
-plakia plaque
plant/o sole of the foot
plas/o development; formation
-plasia development; formation; growth
-plasm formation
-plastic pertaining to formation
-plasty surgical repair
ple/o more; many
-plegia paralysis; palsy
-plegic paralysis; palsy
pleur/o pleura
plex/o plexus; network (of nerves)
-pnea breathing
pneum/o lung; air; gas
pneumon/o lung; air; gas
pod/o foot
-poiesis formation
-poietin substance that forms
poikil/o varied; irregular
pol/o extreme
polio- gray matter (of brain or spinal cord)
poly- many; much
polyp/o polyp; small growth
pont/o pons (a part of the brain)
-porosis condition of pores (spaces)
post- after; behind
poster/o back (of body); behind
-prandial meal
-praxia action
pre- before; in front of
presby/o old age
primi- first
pro- before; forward
proct/o anus and rectum
pros- before; forward
prostat/o prostate gland
prot/o first
prote/o protein
proxim/o near
prurit/o itching
pseudo- false
psych/o mind
-ptosis droop; sag; prolapse; fall
-ptysis spitting
pub/o pubis (anterior part of hip bone)
pulmon/o lung
pupill/o pupil (dark center of the eye)
purul/o pus
py/o pus
pyel/o renal pelvis
pylor/o pylorus; pyloric sphincter
pyr/o fever; fire
pyret/o fever
pyrex/o fever
quadri- four
rachi/o spinal column; vertebrae
radi/o x-rays; radioactivity; radius (lateral lower arm bone)
radicul/o nerve root
re- back; again; backward
rect/o rectum
ren/o kidney
reticul/o network
retin/o retina
retro- behind; back; backward
rhabdomy/o straited (skeletal) muscle
rheumat/o watery flow
rhin/o nose
rhytid/o wrinkle
roentgen/o x-rays
-rrhage bursting forth (of blood)
-rrhagia bursting forth (of blood)
--rrhaphy suture
-rrhea flow; discharge
-rrhexis rupture
rrhythm/o rhythm
sacr/o sacrum
salping/o fallopian tube; auditory (eustachian) tube
-salpinx fallopian tube; oviduct
sarc/o flesh (connective tissue)
scapul/o scapula; shoulder blade
-schisis to split
schiz/o split
scint/o spark
scirrh/o hard
scler/o sclera (white of eye); hard
-sclerosis hardening
scoli/o crooked; bent
-scope instrument for visual examination
-scopy visual examination
scot/o darkness
seb/o sebum
sebace/o sebum
sect/o to cut
semi- half
semin/i semen; seed
seps/o infection
sial/o saliva
sialaden/o salivary gland
sider/o iron
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
silic/o glass
sinus/o sinus
-sis state of; condition
-sol solution
somat/o body
-some body
somn/o sleep
-somnia sleep
son/o sound
-spadia to tear; cut
-spasm sudden contraction of muscles
sperm/o spermatozoa; sperm cells
spermat/o spermatozoa; sperm cells
sphen/o wedge; sphenoid bone
spher/o globe-shaped; round
sphygm/o pulse
-sphyxia pulse
splanchn/o viscera (internal organs)
spin/o spine (backbone)
spir/o to breathe
splen/o spleen
spondyl/o vertebra (backbone)
squam/o scale
-stalsis contraction
staped/o stapes (middle ear bone)
staphyl/o clusters; uvula
-stasis to stop; control; place
-static pertaining to stopping; controlling
steat/o fat, sebum
-stenosis tightening; stricture
ster/o solid structure; steroid
stere/o solid; three-dimensional
stern/o sternum (breastbone)
steth/o chest
-sthenia strength
-stitial to set; pertaining to standing or positioned
stomat/o mouth
-stomia condition of the mouth
-stomy new opening (to form a mouth)
strept/o twisted chains
styl/o pole or stake
sub- under; below
submaxill/o mandible (lower jaw bone)
-suppression to stop
supra- above, upper
sym- together; with
syn- together; with
syncop/o to cut off, cut short; faint
syndesm/o ligament
synov/o synovia; synovial membrane; sheath around a tendon
syring/o tube
tachy- fast
tars/o tarsus; hindfoot or ankle (7 bones between the foot and the leg)
tax/o order; coordination
tel/o complete
tele/o distant
ten/o tendon
tendin/o tendon
-tension pressure
terat/o monster; malformed fetus
test/o testis (testicle)
tetra- four
thalam/o thalamus
thalass/o sea
the/o put; place
thec/o sheath
thel/o nipple
therapeut/o treatment
-therapy treatment
therm/o heat
thorac/o chest
-thorax chest; pleural cavity
thromb/o clot
thym/o thymus gland
-thymia mind (condition of)
-thymic pertaining to mind
thyr/o thyroid gland; shield
thyroid/o thyroid gland
tibi/o tibia (shin bone)
-tic pertaining to
toc/o labor; birth
-tocia labor; birth (condition of)
-tocin labor; birth (a substance for)
tom/o to cut
-tome instrument to cut
-tomy process of cutting
ton/o tension
tone/o to stretch
tonsill/o tonsil
top/o place; position; location
tox/o poison
toxic/o poison
trache/o trachea (windpipe)
trans- across; through
-tresia opening
tri- three
trich/o hair
trigon/o trigone (area within the bladder)
-tripsy to crush
troph/o nourishment; development
-trophy nourishment; development
-tropia to turn
-tropic turning
-tropin stimulate; act on
tympan/o tympanic membrane (eardrum); middle ear
-type classification; picture
-ule little; small
uln/o ulna (medical lower arm bone)
ultra- beyond; excess
-um structure; tissue; thing
umbilic/o umbilicus (navel)
ungu/o nail
uni- one
ur/o urine; urinary tract
ureter/o ureter
urethr/o urethra
-uria urination; condition of urine
urin/o urine
-us structure; thing
uter/o uterus (womb)
uve/o uvea, vascular layer of eye (iris, choroid, ciliary body)
uvul/o uvula
vag/o vagus nerve
vagin/o vagina
valv/o valve
valvul/o valve
varic/o varicose veins
vas/o vesel; duct; vas deferens
vascul/o vessel (blood)
ven/o; ven/i vein
vener/o venereal (sexual contact)
ventr/o belly side of body
ventricul/o ventricle (of heart or brain)
venul/o venule (small vein)
-verse to turn
-version to turn
vertebr/o vertebra (backbone)
vesic/o urinary bladder
vesicul/o seminal vesicle
vestibul/o vestibule of the inner ear
viscer/o internal organs
vit/o life
vitr/o vitreous body (of the eye)
vitre/o glass
viv/o life
vol/o to roll
vulv/o vulva (female external genitalia)
xanth/o yellow
xen/o stranger
xer/o dry
xiph/o sword
-y condition; process
zo/o animal life

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