CHAPTER 4 - INTERRELATED SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES: MATTER, ENERGY, AND ENVIRONMENT


Question Answer
science a method for gathering and organizing information that involves observation, asking questions about observations hypothesis formation, testing hypothesis, critically evaluating the results, and publishing information so that others can evaluate the proces
scientific method a way of gathering and evaluating information. It involves observation, hypothesis formation, hypothesis testing, critical evaluation of results, and the publishing of findings
cause-and-effect relationships a relationship between two events or things in which a change in the first leads to a change in the second
observation ability to detect events by the senses or machines that extend the senses
hypohesis a logical statement that explains an event or answers a question that can be tested
experiment an artificial situation designed to test the validity of a hypothesis
variables things that change from time to time
controlled experiment an experiment in which two groups are compared. One, the control, is used as a basis of comparison and the other, the experimental, has one factor different from the control
reproductibility a characteristic of the scientific method in which independent investigators must be able to reproduce the experiment to see if they get the same results
theory a unifying principle that binds together large areas of scientific knowledge
kinetic molecular theory the widely accepted theory that all matter is made of small particles that are in constant movement
scientific law a uniform or constant fact of nature that describes what happens in nature
law of conservation of mass states that matter is not gained or lost during a chemical reaction
matter substance with measurable mass and volume
atoms the basic subunit of elements, composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons
element a form of matter consisting of a specific kind of atom
nucleus the central region of an atom that contains protons and neutrons
protons the positively charged particle located in the nucleus of an atom
neutrons neutrally charged particle located in the nucleus of an atom
electrons the lightweight, negatively charged particle that moves around at some distance from the nucleus of an atom
isotopes atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
molecules two or more atoms chemically bonded to form a stable unit
ions an atom or group of atoms that has an electric charge because it has either gained or lost electrons
compound a kind of matter composed of two or more different kinds of atoms bonded together
mixtures a kind of matter consisting of two or more kinds of matter intermingled with no specific ratio of the kinds of matter
acid any substance that, when dissolved in water, releases hydrogen ions
pH the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration; a measure of the number of hydrogen ions present
base any substance that, when dissolved in water, removes hydrogen ions from solution; forms a salt when combined with an acid
hydroxide ions a negatively charged particle consisting of a hydrogen and an oxygen atom, commonly released from materials that are bases
chemical bonds the physical attraction between atoms that results from the interaction of their electrons
exothermic reactions chemical reaction in which the newly formed compounds have less chemical energy than the compounds from which they were formed
endothermic reactions chemical reaction in which the newly formed chemical bonds contain more energy than was present in the compounds from which they were formed
activation energy the initial energy input required to start a reaction
catalyst a substance that alters the rate of a reaction but is not itself changed
enzymes protein molecules that speed up the rate of specific chemical reactions
photosynthesis the process by which plants manufacture food. Light energy is used to convert carbon dioxide and water to sugar and oxygen
respiration the process that organisms use to release chemical bond energy from food
energy the ability to do work
kinetic energy energy of moving objects
potential energy the energy of position
sensible heat the heat energy stored in a substance as a result of an increase in its temperature
latent heat heat transfer that occurs when a substance is changed from one state to another –solid to liquid, gas to liquid – in which heat is transferred but the temperature does not change
first law of thermodynamics a statement about energy that says that under normal physical conditions, energy is neither created nor destroyed
second law of thermodynamics a statement about energy conversion that says that whenever energy is converted from one form to another, some of the useful energy is lost
entropy the degree of disorder in a system. All systems tend toward a high degree of disorder or entropy
combustion the process of releasing chemical bond energy from fuel



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