Root, Prefix, Suffix, Abbreviation List


Question Answer
spondylo- vetebra
myelo- spinal cord; bone marrow. e.g, myeloblast: immature bone marrow cell
PDA patent ductus arteriosus used indomethacin (Indocin)
COX-1 Protects stomach lining, but platelet aggregation
COX-2 Causes inflammation and pain
phago- eat, swallow e.g. phagocyte
-genic produced by e.g. ulcergenic
epi- above, upon e.g. epigastric
trans- across e.g. transverse: turning across
pyresis state of fever (-esis: condition, state of)
erythema widespread redness of the skin
DX diagnosis
Rx prescription medication
QD every day
BID two times a day
TID three times a day
QID four times a day
QOD every other day
-osis abnormal condition
bovine cow
porcine pig
equine horse
murine mice
NME new molecular entity -pioneer/1st class drugs -truly unique
"No drug has original effects" means can block, enhances, but can't replace(replace: insuline; enhance: stimulate heart, lungs; interrupt: hypertension
"No drug has just one action" Therapeutic effect (pharmacologic effect), side effect (effects other than the therapeutic effects), adverse effect (a toxic side effect)
lithotripsy crushing the kidney stone for easy removal; -tripsy: to crush
nephrolithiasis (renal calculi) kidney stone
polydysia very thirsty
polyuria very frequent urination
dysuria lack of urine
xerostomia dry mouth
ectopic kidneys kidneys located in an abnormal location (congenital defect)
CKD chronic kidney dz: condition during whcih serum cratinine and BUN levels rise leading to impairment of body systems
CRF chronic renal failure: progressive loss of kidney function
vesicovaginal fistula abnormal condition of viginal and bladder fistulous tract allowing urine to flow directly into the vigina
enuresis wet bed
stress incontinence occurs with strain on the bladder opening during coughing or sneezing
urgency incontinence occurs with inablility to hold back urination when feeling the urge to void
nephrolithiasis kidney stones (renal calculi
nephrolithodynia ureteral colic
hydronephrosis condition in which the renal pelvis accummulates an abnormal level of urine caused by kidney stones
prolapse slide forwards
anaphylaxis an extreme allergic reaction to a substance (ana- means up)
prophylaxis protection (-phylaxis: protect, pro-: before)=prevention
carbonic anhydrase inhibitor prevents the conversion of CO2 & H20 to HCO3- & H+ and via versa
anacusis a state of complete deafness (-acusis/-cusis: hearing)
vertigo sensation of whirling motion (dizziness)
oophor- ovary e.g., unilateral oophorectomy: removal of one ovary
salpingo- Fallopian tube e.g., salpingectomy: removal of the Fallopian tube
masto- breast e.g., gynecomastia: condition of breast enlargement in males
ICP Intracranial pressure
ACE inhibitor Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor -ends with "-opril"
ARB's Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers -ends with "-sartan"
angio-, vaso- blood vessels
thrombo- clot
SA node on roof of R. atrium
AV node at junction btwn atrium and ventricle
Bunddle of His two branches in the interventricular septum
Purkinje fibers radiate from bottom and up (more branches)
P wave depolarization of the atrium -atrial systole
QRS depolarization of the ventricle -ventricular systole
T wave repolarization of the ventricle -ventricular diastole
Bundle of His located at the top portion of the interventricular septum and gives rise to bundle branches
Bundle branch found in the interventricular septum, eitheir be the left or right branch.
NSR normal sinus rhythm
EKG/ECG electrocardiogram
HR normal heart rate is from 60bpm-100bpm
aneurysm local widening of an arterial wall subjects to rupturing
regurgitaion a bubble up of blood into atrium from ventricle
MVP Mitral valve prolapse (inverted valve)
LVH left ventricle hypertrophy (left ventricle works harder to pump blood through a narrow artery)
diaphoresis the process of sweating
dextro- right dextrocardia: abnormally located to the right
myocardium heart tissue that undergoes MI
endocardium this inner heart layer of IV drug users usually get infected
DNR do not resuscitate
tamponade collection of fluid in the pericardial cavity causes compression of the heart
NGT Nasogastric Tube -FDA-approved use of nimodipine (Nimotop)by pulling capsule to give via NGT (not NTG)
CAB/CABG coronary artery bypass
CPR cardio-pulmonary resuscitation
PTCA angioplasty for short (Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty)
CPK cardiac isoenzymes
stent artificial piece that keeps the wall of artery from coming back together
cinchonism collection of Sx caused by quinidine intoxication
SLE Systemic Lupus Erythematosus -a lupus-like Sx
PVC premature ventricular contraction
IV bolus is a large volume of fluid or dose of drug given intravenously and rapidly at one time
DVT Deep vein thrombosis (a clot formed in a large vein of the lower limb)
PE embolism (embolus: transient clot, thrombus: localized clot)
variose vein abnormally swollen or twisted vein of the legs
CO cardiac output depends on HR(chronotropic)and stroke volume (inotropic =force of contraction)
NS normal saline (NaCl 0.9%)
D5W dextrose 5% in water
CVA cerebrovascular acident (stroke) aka cerebral infarction/brain attack
idiopathic etiology (cause) unknown
TPA Tissue plasminogen activator for Tx of stroke, aka Activase
syncope loss of conciousness
angiorrhaphy the repair by suture of a blood vessel
hypertrichosis/hirsuitism overgrowth of hairs
Hct Hematocrit: percentage of RBCs in a volume of blood (-crit means separate)
aniscytosis an abnormality of red blood cells of unequal size
ascites a peritoneal edema due to low albumins
Ig immunoglobin ( Ig -M,A,G,D,E)
BMT bone marrow transplant
hematopoiesis process forming blood cells
erythropoiesis process forming red blood cells
myelopoiesis bone marrow synthesis
N/V nausea/vomiting
melena blood in stool
c(- on top) with
p(- on top) after
G-CSF granulocyte-colony stimulating factor
GM-CSF granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor
LMWH low molecular weight heparin
-rrhexis rupture e.g. splenorrhexis: ruptured spleen
lympho- lymph
lymphocyto- lymphatic cells
lymphangio- lymphatic vessel
lymphadeno- lymphatic tissue
ecchymosis bruise
epistaxis bloody nose
petechiae small bruise (dots)
purpura large . of bruise usually seen in the elderly
IC intracardiac
legend drugs Rx only drugs
drug origins plants, animals and minerals
approval of NME is based on safetly (min risk) and efficacy (has to work)
ADR adverse drug reaction (side effect)
DTC direct to consumer
TI therapeutic index (measures safety) = LD50/ ED50
NTI narrow therapeutic index= a small change in dosage could cause toxic results
idosyncratic effect an unexpected side effect
NKA/NKDA no know Ax/no known drug Ax
teratogenic causing birth defects
iatrogenic Tx causes problems
IA intra-articular (joint)
PR per rectum (rectal route)
SQ subcutaneous
SL sublingual
pharmacokinetic movement of drugs (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolite, Excretion)
tachyphylaxis develop tolerance quickly
Placebo innert, used in testing controlled experiment
EC enteric coated
XR extended release
trade name contains registered trademarks
indication valid reason to use the drug for
contraindication conditions or factors that a drug is not supposed to be used for
bioavailability fraction of drug administered which is actually absorbed and reached the circulation
osteo-, osseo- bone
teno-, tendino- tendon



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